Eiffel was not privately funded

 
Aabhas Maldahiyar 🇮🇳@Aabhas24Columnist| Urban Designer|Author| Ex-Marxist | My latest book #ModiAgain (story of my transformation) preorder at garudabooks.com/modi-again/Dec. 01, 2018  5 min read

1/n @FarOutAkhtar Read few facts about Eiffel Tower below👇🏼. It actually wasn’t a private funded property. Ref: Gustave Eiffel’s book “The 300m tower”. @RatanSharda55 @vivekagnihotri @vibhor_anand @_NAN_DINI @GitaSKapoor @Sanjay_Dixit @DimpleAtra @DikshitSmita @prafullaketkar

Farhan Akhtar

@FarOutAkhtar

It’s a false equivalence. Both the Eiffel tower and Empire State Building were built by individuals using private funds. The statue has been built using public money. Here endeth the discussion. https://twitter.com/hvgoenka/status/1068210932080304128 

Harsh Goenka

@hvgoenka

Indians when in Paris: Look at Eiffel Tower. Why can’t we build such structures?
Indians when in New York: Look at Empire State Building. Why can’t we build such structures?
Indians when in India: Look at Patel’s Statue. Why can’t we build a hospital or school instead!
(WA)

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2/n When Gustave Eiffel won the competition organized in May 1886 for the construction of his tower, he signed a concession contract. Details below👇🏼As written by Gustave E

3/n Project submission and approval

I’ll be able to make,for the history of this period,large loans to the magistral General Report of Mr. Alfred Picard,Inspector Gen of Bridges and Roads,Section Presi to the Council of State,today Commissioner General of the Exhibition of 1900.

4/n “These indications (on the high metal piles) highlight & show at the same time how much in the most considerable works we had remained far from the height assigned to the Tower of the Champ de Mars.

5/n Mr.Eiffel’s broad role in the study & exec.of wrk of this kind:by his sc,his exp,the considerable progress he has made in assembly processes,of his workshops,this eminent bldr ws the perfect choice to undertake the colossal work that hs definitively established his reputation

6/n The company was well-suited to tempt a skilful, experienced and daring builder, like Mr. Eiffel: he did not hesitate to assume the charge and submit firm proposals to the Minister of Commerce and Industry, in order to understand the Tower as part of the 1889 World Fair.

7/n In the mind of Mr. Eiffel, this colossal work was to be a brilliant manifestation of the industrial power of our country, attesting to the immense progress made in art metal constructions, celebrating the unprecedented growth of civil engineering…contd..

8/n …during this century, attracting many visitors and contributing greatly to the success of the great peaceful assizes organized for the Centenary of 1789.

9/n The openings of Mr Eiffel were well received by the Administration. When, on May 1, 1886, Mr Lockroy , then Minister of Commerce and Industry, stopped the competition program for the 1889 Exhibition he inserted the following article:👇🏼

10/n Competitors will have to study the possibility of raising on the Champ de Mars a square base iron tower, 125 meters wide at the base and 300 meters high.

11/n They will include this tower on the plan of the Champ de Mars, and, if they deem it suitable, they may present another plan without the said tower.
It can be said that from that time work was decided in principle.

12/n A few days later, on May 12, 1886, Mr. Lockroy set up a Commission for the study and examination of the project of execution which I had presented.

14/n The convention
Commission met at the Ministry of Trade and Industry,May 15, 1886. In this first meeting,the Minister recalled that the final adoption of the project presented by MG Eiffel remained subordinate to the subsequent decisions of the Commission of control & finance

14/n Minister also recalled that the current Commission was exclusively responsible for examining the project from a technical point of view and issuing a reasoned opinion on the benefits it presents and any changes it might entail.

15/n The Commission heard the explanations given by Mr G. Eiffel and entrusted the detailed study of the plans and the verification of the calculations to a Sub-Commission composed of MM. Phillipps, Collignon and Contamin.

16/n At its second meeting, held on 12 June, the Commission received the report submitted by Mr. Collignon on behalf of the Sub-Commission and, by a vote, unanimously adopted the following conclusions: this report.

17/n Then, at the invitation of the Minister, she examined the various other tower projects which the Minister had seized in the interval between the two sessions. After having successively examined the projects presented by MM.

18/n Boucher, Bourdais, Henry, Marion, Pochet, Robert, Rouyer and Speyser, the Commission rejected several of them as impracticable, some others as insufficiently studied, and finally, on the proposal of Mr. Alphand, she declared to the unanimity, that…contd…

19/n …the tower to be erected for the Universal Exhibition of 1889 should offer a definite character, that it should appear as an original masterpiece of the metal industry and that the Eiffel Tower seemed to be the only answer fully to this goal.

20/n Consequently, the Commission, within the limits of the purely technical mandate entrusted to it, proposed to the Minister the adoption of the Eiffel Tower project, subject to the double reservation that the engineer-builder would have to study in a more precise way.

21/n The mechanism of the elevators, and that three specialists, MM. Mascart, Becquerel and Berger, would be asked to give their reasoned opinion on the measures to be taken concerning the electrical phenomena that might occur. (Extract from the minutes of the Commission)

22/n Final Treaty
“On 8/1/1887, Mr. Lockroy , Minister, Commissioner Gen of the Exhibition, Dustbin,Prefect of the Seine,duly authorized by the Council Municipal, & Eiffel,bidder,signed an agreement under which the latter definitely committed to run the 300-meter tower.

23/n And to put it into operation at the opening of the Exhibition of 1889.

Mr. Eiffel remained under the control of the engineers of the Exhibition and the Special Commission set up on May 12, 1886. He received:

Contd from 24/n onwards…PS(Tweet limit)

24/n Contd from 23/n
1. A subsidy of 1,500,000 francs, in three terms, the last of which is due upon receipt of the book;
2. The authorization to operate the Tower for the duration of the Exhibition, both from the point of view of public ascension and from the…

25/n…point of view of the installation of restaurants, cafes or other similar establishments, under the double provided that the price of the ascent would be limited, on ordinary days, to 5 francs for the summit…

26/n … and 2 francs for the first floor, and Sundays and public holidays, 2 francs for the summit and 1 franc for the first floor, and that the concessions of cafes, restaurants, etc., would be approved by the Minister;

27/n 3. The continuation of enjoyment for twenty years from January 1, 1890.

At the expiration of this last period, the enjoyment of the Tower was to return to the City of Paris,which was also substituted for the State in the property of the monument, soon after the Exposition

N/n MG Eiffel recovered more money than invested in first 20 years of operation. Later the revenue started being diverted to the government.
It wasn’t actually a private investment. @FarOutAkhtar I can send out scanned images of the book in case you doubt authenticity. TY.

N/N1 Sadar Pranam @Javedakhtarjadu sir. Last time I had caught Farhan insulting Mr Goenka. 👆🏼 is a thread (28 tweets) where I had to explain his misinfo abt Eiffel Tower. Can u school him too pl. cc @ShefVaidya @pradip103 @KanchanGupta @Sanjay_Dixit

 

 

Feminism and Traditions

A thread by Aabhas Maldahiyar 🇮🇳

 
Aabhas Maldahiyar 🇮🇳@Aabhas24Columnist| Urban Designer|Author| Ex-Marxist | My latest book #ModiAgain (story of my transformation) preorder at garudabooks.com/modi-again/Oct. 24, 2018  5 min read

 

 

1/n Hey @BDUTT ,after reading the whole article, I could see a sculpture crafted out of misunderstandings! Here in this thread below I give u a comprehensive rebuttal. Care to respond. Cc @UnSubtleDesi @RatanSharda55 @vivekagnihotri  https://www.hindustantimes.com/columns/shame-at-sabarimala-why-india-s-women-need-a-uniform-civil-code/story-U7FLp10SzZzfTvWnXov5aJ.html 

2/n Barkha u start off saying that being a proud feminist u can’t see traditions & customs frozen in time.R u aware of what u say? Plainly speaking tradition is transmission of customs or beliefs frm generation to generation, or the fact of being passed on in this way.

3/n Barkha, hence tradition is ought to be frozen in time or else it’s not tradition. Rather few traditions that orchestrates the threat to humanity must be shunned. & It’s not a feminist cause nor it can any be masculine as Societal progress sees no bar.

4/n @BDUTT 2/n &3/n clarify that the very highlighter if article itself is a misplaced argument. Now let’s move to the body of article. 🙂

5/n In the very 1st paragraph u speak of Women being assaulted. Can u pl give me at least 10 names who have been assaulted? Well let me tell u, here I’m making a clear distinction amid reporting journos & so called devotees or activists. Kindly don’t blow things out of proportion

6/n @BDUTT weren’t the women u talk abt, actually trying to embark to deity not for devotion bt to subjugate an activism against the very rational practice although traditional. Pl tell me what’s the essence of visiting a place if u want to do everything against functionality?

7/n Do u advise kids to go to school & play 🏈 inside a literature lecture hall? Will u keep dancing on a flight just in case u see activism in it? Similar is this case of Sabarimala, people who don’t feel like worshiping r shouting frm rooftop to reach deity. Are u one of those?

8/n @BDUTT how do u defend the case of #RehanaFatima for the derogatory impressions her Facebook page gives to every one who believes in Sabarimala? Though I’m s teetotaller still I want to ask what of few drunkard Muslims start activism to enter Mosque with bottle of tharra?

9/n @BDUTT let’s look at other side of coin. The bad Majority( #BadHindus ). Can u name 1 who knows inside-out of Sabarimala has passed hand to join activism? Now don’t say me that how does it matter? Had it not mattered Chandigarh wud hv been designed by Nehru & LeCorb the PM

10/n @BDUTT hope u remember ur conversation with @SadhguruJV . Didn’t he gave u corollary of His & Her toilet? Isn’t it very well understood that yes there are few things which come with common sense & it has nothing to do with sexism. Isn’t it so?

11/n @BDUTT pl refer this thread ny rebuttal to a good friend in regards to Sabarimala. This may at least make u clear abt wt exactly the deity & Shrine stand for.

12/n Let’s move on ahead in ur article. You make a remark of SC not being feared. Do we really fear Institutions or respect it in Democracy? 🤔 Then can u xpln why did Hindu accept Allahabad Court judgement on Rama JanmaBhoomi evn though 1/3 land was gvn to Sunni w board.

13/n @BDUTT ironically Sunni WBoard only went on to challenge the verdict of AHC. Pl xpln why Kerala Gov denied to file review petition against the Supreme Court? Yahan to fariyad hi nahi suni gai, Kasab ke liye to Aakhri pahar mein SC jaag utha. What shud have people done?

14/n Wasn’t protest & Satyagrah ought to occur? How do u call it disrespect of SC when gov(Kerala) even denied to give Constitutional Right?Isnt even SC mere a pyada of the great Smriti ‘The Constitution’? U say @BJP4India & @RSSorg are supporting street protest.

15/n @BDUTT not everything backed by whom u hate is a crime & after reading above 13 (2-14) how can u say that BJP & RSS are supporting the wrong? Isn’t it actually the time for u even to walk hand in hand with them?Let’s move on. u further talk of women empowerment sarcastically

16/n You make bogus claim that the female r being discriminated for their menstrual cycle. Is it really so? Let me xpln. It is not related to menstruation & I m sure u must be aware the cycle often starts b4 10 & also continues beyond 50 at times. Medical SC acknowledges it.

17/n Every devotee visiting Ayyappa shrine are called as Ayyappa and they all have to wear the same kind of clothing. This uniformity in devotees is a specialty of Sabarimala.B4 entering Sabarimala Ayyappa temple, there is another temple where the devotees go.

18/n Its the temple for a goddess Malikappurathamma. She loved Ayyappan & wanted to marry him. But, Ayyappan said,”I hv already decided to be a Naishtika brahmachaari. So I’ll not be able to marry u. But wn KanniAyyappans stop coming to visit me, then at that time, I’ll marry u”

19/n Till then Ayyappan didn’t want young women 2come &see him. Bcoz of the love &care he had for her, this decision is taken.& the tradition is carried out for 1000s of years. @BDUTT we shud celebrate the love&romance of Malikappurathamma &Ayyappan than condemning the traditions

20/n @BDUTT I wonder y u see a problem if country celebrates female pilots, corporates, designers Ministers but wants to celebrate even a tradition of caring for adore amid two Devines? Is breaking his tradition helping female empowerment or Phogat Sisters bagging medals? Clarify

21/n @BDUTT u mentioned it to b a religious practice but my dear friend India is a very curious case which u can’t ever understand if u see things only from prism of Abrahmic religions. These r cultural practice like how Muslim sculpturs make Ganpati & worship it first.

22/n @BDUTT again u seem like a confused soul when u compare #InstantTripleTalaq with this case. Ma’am any sane person will tell u it’s a civil ground compared to which Hindu adopted Hindu Code in 1951. It took only 4 years ma’am for #intollerantHindus

23/n @BDUTT the case which may b able to compare is Haji Ali.But again when we have a lovely story of adore the case of Haji Ali ws only based on misogyny.Trustees of Mumbai’s Haji Ali Dargah said it would be “a grievous sin” 2 allow women come close to the tomb of the male saint

24/n This point was raised in Bombay High Court while defending the ban on women from entering the inner sanctum. @BDUTT u urself can compare the two instances & tell us what is correct. Will u? This is ur buddy @IndiaToday ‘s report  https://www.indiatoday.in/fyi/story/haji-ali-dargah-why-women-were-banned-from-entering-inner-sanctum-337379-2016-08-26 

25/n @BDUTT so far it’s just partial rebuttal. Will add more (26/n onwards) by evening. Pl care to respond should u have enuf honesty & no agenda. Cc @mini_707070 @vivekagnihotri @Shubhrastha @shakkuiyer

You can follow @Aabhas24.

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Mughals didn;t make us rich

A thread by Aabhas Maldahiyar 🇮🇳

#SadarPranam to the “Guru” within you @DalrympleWill ji on auspicious day of #Gurupoornima. I read the whole article of @iamrana & trust me there is nothing in it that justifies “Mughals made India rich”. I give my argument in string below. U may respond should u have substance.

William Dalrymple

@DalrympleWill

No, Mughals didn’t loot India. They made us rich https://www.dailyo.in/politics/mughals-contribution-indian-economy-rich-culture-tourism-british/story/1/19549.html  via @dailyo_

No, Mughals didn’t loot India. They made us rich

They remained as Indians, not colonists.

dailyo.in

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n I deliberately chose to respond you but not to @ReallySwara @ashoswai or @acjoshi as they just speak without research.

So why did Babur never go back from India? It wasn’t bcoz he loved “Bharata”.

I’m sure that you know it well sir, but chose not to speak.I explain 👇🏼 n S. M. Ikram writes in his book “Muslim Civilization in India” that “Babur paid attention towards India only because he had lost everything in Samarkand “ (paraphrased).

Details in Snippet. The link to the book: (columbia.edu/itc/mealac/pri…)

n Further if I refer to “The Babur-nama in English (Memoirs of Babur)
by Annette Susannah” pg 358:

Babur was forced to take refuge in Bukhara. It had became impossible for him to maintain footing in Samarkand & he moved to Hisar along with family.

He had lost it completely.

n As per “The Babur-nama in English (Memoirs of Babur)
by Annette Susannah” pg 479-80:

Babur mentions himself to be the third 3rd Tramontana conquerer of Hindustan. First being Mahmud.

He clearly states of how he was gulfed in crisis & his Quandhar, Kabul badly needed it.

n While describing India, “Babur” mentions of “abundant gold & silver” .

He also talks about easily available workforce.

Ref: “The Babur-nama in English (Memoirs of Babur)
by Annette Susannah” pg 519-20 @sankrant @Sanjay_Dixit

n Babur further talks about the terrific revenue he is able to generate for the obedient nature of Indian Subjects.

Check highlights in snippet.Ref: “The Babur-nama in English (Memoirs of Babur)
by Annette Susannah” pg 520-21

n I’m sure you understand well what £ 4,212,000 revenue meant in 1528 for the king who had lost his core “samrajya” (Samarkand) & was struggling for existence.

n So if one carefully goes in details related to tweet 2/n to 8/n, it’s evident enough that Babur wasn’t in mood to go back for following obvious reasons(& not for love for Ind):
1)No control back home
2)Easy Revenue in India for docile people
3)Access of abundant Wealth n And its best explained by Babur’s will to be buried in “Kabul”.

Ref: “The Babur-nama in English (Memoirs of Babur)
by Annette Susannah” pg 709

n People have been quoting Francois Bernier, attached to the court of Aurangzeb in regards to “Gold” being imported to India. But forget what Babur asserts. Babur talks of abundance of “Gold & Silver” in India . Baburnama, Pg 519

n And since Francois Bernier, has been quoted let me put across more of his opinions which may disappoint @iamrana . When the Ambassadors came to the court of Aurangzeb, they weren’t given enough respect for their gifts were considered cheap. Ref: Pg 133-34, (book in snippet3

n Francois Bernie mentions in further pages that though Mughals found the gift of “Slaves” worth & paid coins worth 20k francs, for they knew it would be utilised in Indian market itself for it was not useful in Ethiopia.

In short no “gold or silver” came as practice.

n Further if Francois Bernie mentions of Gold & Silver flowing in India as business exchange, in next page he clearly mentions that they were always to suffice the royal Mughals & condition of peasants, labour’s & other working class always remained in disdain.

n I saw article even mentioning Sher Shah Suri & roads. In that case I’ll like to bring focus on so called “Grand Trunk Road”.

It wasn’t built by Sher Shah Suri & the actual name of same is “ “Uttarpatha.” n During the time of the Maurya Empire in the 3rd century BCE, overland trade between India & several parts of Western Asia & the Hellenistic world went through the cities of the north-west, primarily Takshashila. n Takshashila was well connected by roads with other parts of the Maurya empire. The Mauryas had maintained this very ancient highway from Takshashila to Pataliputra. n Let me give you a strong reference for it.
Chandragupta Maurya had a whole army of officials overseeing the maintenance of this road as told by the Greek diplomat Megasthenes who spent fifteen years at the Mauryan court. He mentions same in his book Indica. Check snippet.

n He talks of a royal road that connects west with Palibothra (Pataliputra) which is 10,000 stadia in length. Definitely GT road existed at least 18 centuries b4 Sher Shah Suri.
@iamrana do you contradict Indica? If yes, on what basis?

Aabhas Maldahiyar 🇮🇳@Aabhas24

17/n Takshashila was well connected by roads with other parts of the Maurya empire. The Mauryas had maintained this very ancient highway from Takshashila to Pataliputra.

Aabhas Maldahiyar 🇮🇳@Aabhas24

18/n Let me give you a strong reference for it.
Chandragupta Maurya had a whole army of officials overseeing the maintenance of this road as told by the Greek diplomat Megasthenes who spent fifteen years at the Mauryan court. He mentions same in his book Indica. Check snippet.

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n He further mentions: Constructed in eight stages, this road is said to have connected the cities of Purushapura, Takshashila, Hastinapura, Kanyakubja, Prayag, Pataliputra and Tamralipta, a distance of around 1,600 mi. n Like Uttarapatha we had other imp road: Dakshinapatha. It originated from Sarnath, followed through Ujjaini and Narmada valley to Pratisthana in the Mahajanapada of Ashmaka (in modern Maharashtra), onwards to the western coast of India and running in the southern direction. n Uttarapatha & Dakshinapatha intersected each other at Sarnath, a major place of exchange of goods and ideas in ancient India. No wonder why Buddha gave his first sermon at Sarnath. Or even no wonder to why Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Jn (earlier Mughalsarai) is one of the busiest. n Lets go through few historical records. Panini in his Ashtadhyayi mentioned it for the first time as Uttarapathenahritam.

Uttarapatha is referred to also in the Buddhist literatures like Jataka and Vinaya texts. n The distribution of Ashoka’s rock edicts at junctions of trade routes & in the border areas of the Mauryan Empire demonstrates an extensive system for trans-regional mobility in the middle of the third century BCE. n As per 2nd Major Rock Edict & the 7th Pillar Edict,Ashoka ordered wells excavated and trees planted for both humans & animals along routes, validate facilities for travellers, including his admins,armies,merchants & Buddhist monks,were provided on this imperial road network. n Reference for Ashoka’s second edict talking about facilities for traveller on roadside (Uttarapatha).

Scriptions of Asoka. New Edition by E. Hultzsch (in Sanskrit). 1925. p. 3.

n The claim by the eastern Indian ruler in an inscription at Hāthīgumphā (probably belonging to the late first century BCE or earlier)indicates that the location of Uttarāpatha was understood in relation to his own domain.

Ref: Epigraphica Indica, Vol XX, pg88

n A 9th century AD inscription found near Nalanda records the life journey of a Buddhist monk named Vīradeva who travelled from the northwest to Buddhist shrines and monasteries in northeastern India. Was it possible without roads? n I spoke of Dakshinapatha in 22/n .

Let’s see more details about it. The term Dakshinapatha is mentioned in the Arthasastra of Kautilya. Buddhist literature also mentions a number of merchants going from Pataliputra and Kaushambi to Pratishthana on the Godavari. n Check our mention of “Dakshinapatha” in Arthashastra in snippet attached.

Ref: Kautilaya Arthashastra
by Shastri, Gangaprasad pg 14

n India had very advanced road network for trade was unavoidable for the richest country of world.

It will be foolish to say that Mugjsjs gave road to India.

They added infrastructure just as retrofitting to the existing, not for Indus but their own revenues. n You can’t live in a place without resources. Mughals we’re doing same for few infrastructure development what they did. n @iamrana
So far established till 32/n:
A)Mughals had no option but to stay in India for they were thrown from their own home
B)India had well developed road network lot b4 Mughals.They didn’t give us roads.
I’m continuing rebuttal to rest article.

Aabhas Maldahiyar 🇮🇳@Aabhas24

to the “Guru” within you @DalrympleWill ji on auspicious day of . I read the whole article of @iamrana & trust me there is nothing in it that justifies “Mughals made India rich”. I give my argument in string below. U may respond should u have substance. https://twitter.com/DalrympleWill/status/1150342434196529152 

William Dalrymple

@DalrympleWill

Brilliant piece from @RanaSafvi answering centuries of British anti-Mughal propaganda later imbibed & propagated by the Hindutva right. My own research has led me to similar conclusions:

No, Mughals didn’t loot India. They made us rich https://www.dailyo.in/politics/mughals-contribution-indian-economy-rich-culture-tourism-british/story/1/19549.html … via @dailyo_

1,595 people are talking about this

n You appreciate Akbar for better tax system.

But records say otherwise.

“Akbar’s taxes were highest”.

Ref 1:Muslim Civilization in India
by S. M. Ikram
edited by
Ainslie T. Embree, Chapter XVL

I’m quoting more details in trailing tweets.

n I had left this thread on rebuttal to @iamrana ma’am’s article till mentioning Akbar’s stand on economic policies. Today I’m carrying forward & will be quoting from book “The Cambridge Economic History of India” edited by T Raychudhuri & I Habib

Aabhas Maldahiyar 🇮🇳@Aabhas24

33/n @iamrana
So far established till 32/n:
A)Mughals had no option but to stay in India for they were thrown from their own home
B)India had well developed road network lot b4 Mughals.They didn’t give us roads.
I’m continuing rebuttal to rest article.https://twitter.com/aabhas24/status/1151157636458401793?s=21 

Aabhas Maldahiyar 🇮🇳@Aabhas24

#SadarPranam to the “Guru” within you @DalrympleWill ji on auspicious day of #Gurupoornima. I read the whole article of @iamrana & trust me there is nothing in it that justifies “Mughals made India rich”. I give my argument in string below. U may respond should u have substance. https://twitter.com/DalrympleWill/status/1150342434196529152 

Aabhas Maldahiyar 🇮🇳@Aabhas24

34/n You appreciate Akbar for better tax system.

But records say otherwise.

“Akbar’s taxes were highest”.

Ref 1:Muslim Civilization in India
by S. M. Ikram
edited by
Ainslie T. Embree, Chapter XVL

I’m quoting more details in trailing tweets.

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n Irfan Habib mentions about forced productions by various including Asaf Khan for their own financial benefits.

He even talks about extortion & gives example of Shaista Khan & Prince Azimushshan.

Check snippet

Ref: Pg 183

n Irfan Habib further gives account of money hoarding at large scale by Mughal Emperors including Akbar.

He quotes De Laet who mentions Akbar’s treasure to be ~522.4 million florins & Sarista Khan to have hoarded ₹380 million.

Was economy blooming?

Snippet pg 183

n Irfan Habib further talks of one way flow of wealth during Mughal Reign, ie :from outer provinces to the central parts of Empire.

He states: The Mughal Empire was a machine to extract resources…

An that’s how wealth of Golconda was drained.

Details in Snippet: Pg 184

n Irfan Habib quotes Ovington, for stating how “Baniyas” had to keep wealth secret fr them not to become wealth of Moghul officers.

Snippet: pg 185

n Irfan Habib further talks about extortion & tendency to not return loan taken from merchants.

The merchants were always lived in fear of showing the wealth they had.

Snippet: pg 186

Definitely life of merchants was horrible in Mughal period.

n Irfan Habib further quotes Fryer to talk about the corruption @ the clerical level.

He says:besides Zakat(1/14th of travellers’ income)heavy toll tax was imposed. It’s a myth that Aurangzeb had removed toll tax.He quotes Thevenot to talk about excessive toll.
Snippet: Pg187

n He further writes on pg 188 that besides Jiziya, duty of 5% was imposed on Hindus while Muslims paid only 2.5%. This was evil intention of Aurangzeb as he wanted more Hindus to be converted.

n Not to forget Irfan Habib quotes Ovington on pg189 to explain that Hindus were often treated with inhumanity & neglect, bcoz of their adhesion to the principles of a religion which is different from that of the state.

This was happening under the Mughal reign.

n Now let me come to the most important & interesting aspect of this thread.

Did Decline of Mughals lead to downfall of Indian Economy or was it something else.

I’m throwing light wrt “The Cambridge Economic History of India” edited by T Raychudhuri & I Habib. Read below👇🏼

n Irfan Habib categorically mentions wars & Mughal desire to conquer as major reason for economic failure of India, followed by their own decline. Moreover the tyranny of the governors was causing Merchants to shut business.

Following snippets explain at best(p192-95).