COVID19 – Challenges and Opportunities for India !

Corona-virus has brought down wheels of economies to a stand still with almost all countries in lockdown or emergency mode. Some economies took the risk of continuing production, but ultimately resorted to Lockdown. There is no vaccine at the moment. If at all a vaccine is found, it will take months for its commercial production. Economics, Strategists, Governments are struggling with the damage caused by Pandemic. The immediate priority of the Governments is saving lives, lest Pandemic can be more deadlier as have been in past.

The impact of such pandemics is immense in terms of lives we lose. The impact is demotivating if not devastating on the Economies. The challenges to be faced next will be bringing back economies to normal, unemployment, NPAs, Growth. Historically, Mankind has faced several natural disasters, man made disasters since the start of the civilization.

World GDP has become 18 times (on nominal basis) while Population increased by 4.6 times. In simple terms, the need and life style of people has grown by 4 times in last 120 years. Table below depicts the journey of World GDP, and growth of Population. World output has been mounted by 5 times since start of 20th Century. The New world is no more local, it is inter-twinned, inter-woven. The extent of dependency of economies on each other is paramount.

Any slow down or change in improved lifestyle is demotivating to devastating. Stopping a wheel of 90 Trillions and starting it again will need lot of reshuffling, realignment, stimulus, and top of all TIME. Pandemics are not new to the civilization in past one hundred years at least on 2 occasions the world got devastated. While the countries recover psychologically, there will be change in Economic world order. As will be discussed later, the world’s input needs are highly concentrated to one country China. The Pandemic has caused economies to rethink to avoid recurrence of such havoc again.

The confidence of the world is eroding the way CCP, WHO handled the Pandemic. In order to diversify and mitigate the losses, big countries like US, Japan, Italy, UK have already expressed their willingness to shift manufacturing base from China to other countries. China’s exports close to 2.5 Trillion Dollars on yearly basis (2018). The number is close to the overall GDP of India on nominal basis. People look this event as an opportunity for shift of manufacturing base from China to India. Let us evaluate various factors in context of India in the event their is substantial or large chunk of manufacturing base to India. We are evaluating this scenario because next better available option to world is Vietnam and Indonesia lack availability of Manpower (a basic ingredient to manufacturing process).

First let us examine the kind of opportunity we are dealing with. China’s big trading partners are the big economies where labour is costlier. To domesticate their consumption, these economies don;t have kind of cheaper inputs of production. If at all these countries start to manufacture their own needs, the prices of outputs will be much higher. Let us evaluate the Chinese trade into type of goods being exported, imported and country wise transaction.

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The Exports of China of $2.5 Trillions mainly includes Capital goods of $ 1.15 Trillions such as Transportation, Machines and Electronics. Capital goods export is almost 46% of its total exports . Next highest category is Consumer Goods (Textiles, Footwears, Wood, Hides and Skins, Food Products, Vegetables, etc.). The exports to US were 20%, Hongkong 12%, Japan 6%, South Korea 4.5%, UK 2.3%, Australia 1.9% Vietnam, Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, Thailand put together 11%.

China’s Imports of $ 2.13 Trillion in 2018 included imports 10% from South Korea, 9.2% from Japan, 8% from USA, Germany 5.4%, Australia 5.4%, Brazil 3.9%, Vietnam, Malaysia and Thailand 8.8% and rest other countries. The major component imported were Electrical and electronic equipment 24%, fuels 16%. Rest of imports largely commodities such as metals, non-metals.

China’s top trading partners’

China’s Export to its top trading partner US included 152 $B of electrical machinery, Machinery 117 $B, furniture and bedding B$, toys and sports equipment 27$B and Plastics were 19$B. China imported Aircraft 18 $B, machinery 14B$, Electrical Machinery 13$B, Medical instruments 10$$B, agricultural products 9.3 $B. US Also exported 59 $B services to China.

China’s export to Japan 2nd largest trading partner were Electrical machinery of 52.4B$, machinery of 31.1 B$ clothing 18 B$, and chemicals worth 12 B$. China imported from Japan 52 B$ of machinery, 32 B$of Electrical machinery, chemicals worth 24B$, transport equipments 14.4B$ during 2018.

Hong Kong is China’s 3rd largest trading partner. It can be termed as China’s trading hub since almost all the goods exported by Hongkong to China are for re-export. China’s Export during 2018 to Hong Kong were Electrical machinery of 160 B$, machinery of 44 B$ medical equipments 10 B$. China imported from Hongkong 198 B$ of machinery, 19 B$ of Electrical machinery, and machinery of 39 B$ during 2018. Hongkong’s Import and Export were almost 44.2% and 46.3% respectively and exclusively with China

We see demonstrated above how big is the trade we are talking about. The total foreign trade of China is approxiately 4.5 Trillion $. Its 150% of India’s GDP alone. Shifting base from China to other countries would mean a retaliatory action by China to shift its import base as well. We saw it is not that simple. Another weighing evaluation for sustainable growth of Output is Cost of Factor of production which includes Labour, Rent and Capital cost. The other qualitative factors are supply chain. Let us evaluate each parameter one by one.

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Cost of wages

China’s average wage is 72000 CNY per year, the minimum wage is around 29800 CNY per year, this translates into 43000 CNY (assuming 30% white collar and 70% blue collar); Average of manpower cost is 495 $/P.M.. In India, minimum wage is around 5340 INR/P.M., wages of low skilled labour is 10900 INR/P.M. and wages of high skilled labour is 43200 INR/P.M. The average manpower cost is approximately 212 $/P.M. Personal Income tax rate in China is 45% and Social security tax rate is 48%. While Individual Personal Tax rate is 15-33%, Provident fund is also 24% on basic. Hence The Gap between Disposable Individual Income of two countries narrows down to 65% due to higher SST and IT.

China’s weighted average manpower cost is costlier by 134% as compare to India. Hence this is advantageous not only in terms of Cost but the availability of Manpower is not an immediate constraint.

Capacity and Capability building will emerge as a challenge going forward !!
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Availability of Power

Cost of Electricity a major component in production. China’s Electricity cost is 0.52 RMB/KWH while the same in India is 5.94 INR/KWH. In Dollar both country’s cost of electricity comes out to be 0.078 USD. Availability of uninterrupted power supply for Industrial production is at present a challenge for India. Although, NDA-II Government under the leadership of PM Shri Narendra Modi has geared up for this future need. The All India installed capacity As on 31.03.2020 is 370 GW, a jump of impressive 50% in NDA’s regime. However, the consumption grew by 36% in same period. Currently in 2019 the total consumption of electricity stands at 277 GW (1196309 GWh). A surplus of 107 GW at the moment. Transmission and Distribution Losses (T&D) were appx 20 % in India very high as against averages of world average of 8%. China’s T&D losses reported 5.91% in 2012. The current consumption of electricity by Industrial segment is 41%. We can cater the additional demand for electricity by cutting down T&D losses and utilizing unutilised capacity. But will that be enough if we need to cater increased demand from the world post Pandemic sentiments. This will need a short term as well as long term planning.

China’s 2018, Industrial power consumption sore to 4.72 Trillion GWh (1.1 Trillion Watts) on ~40% of Manufacturing share in GDP. The proportional use of electricity consumed for export is around 341 MW. This is around the total output of India’s all production capacity. For Each increase in Production by 100 $ Billion 14 MW Power needed.

If we can bring down India’s T&D losses to world average of 6%, the balance 14% equivalent to 50 GW would only be sufficient to increase production by $ 300-350 Billion.

Availability of Power is ceiling on aspiration of availing opportunity.
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Logistics and infrastructure of India and China

Next crucial parameter to compare is Supply Chain Management (SCM) this includes movement of goods (Raw material, Finished goods) from and to ports. The big countries are very particular about quality and turn around time (TAT). We will need to evaluate how we can improve various parameters vital to improve our response time and quality of logistics. India ranks at 44th out of 160 countries, while China stands at 12th Rank in terms of Logistical Performance Index (LPI) published by World Bank in 2018. Smaller countries like Indonesia, Hongkong, Taiwan fares better in terms of LPI. Some of the criterion, which need an evaluation are

  • Customs clearing process
  • Quality of infrastructure in terms of accessibility of inputs and deliverability of outputs
  • Shipments at competitive prices
  • Competitive logical services
  • Ability to track and trace shipments and
  • Timeliness of deliverable

While other parameters can be matched in short run, Timeliness and quality of Infrastructure the are two parameters which India legs behind as compared to China.

Capital Cost in a country is driven by Prime Lending Rate (PLR). Sovereign Banks always use PLR as a tool to incentivize infra and business projects. Current PLR of both the countries China and India are at PAR. So this is not an issue in the evaluation of criterion

Rent is the yield of Investment in Property. This is another factor cost for manufacturing industries. The Rental yield rate is 3.5% in Delhi as compared to 1.8% in Shanghai or 2.5 in Beijing. The Property rates are 2-4 times costlier in Chinese metro cities as compared to India’s metropolitan cities. This way the Rental cost should be lesser in China by almost 40-60%. The State Governments can provide Land at subsidized rate in order to decentralize already choking metro cities. This can be combined with Modi Government’s existing policy of Smart City Project.

FM, Ms N Seetharaman, announced Corporate tax rate for Domestic companies of 25.17% not claiming tax exemptions and 26.0%-29.12% for the companies intend to claim exemptions and incentives. The Corporate Tax rate of 17.16% is a boon for New Domestic Manufacturing set up on or after 1st October 2019. Foreign entrepreneurs will like to setup their manufacturing units as Domestic company to avoid a higher tax rate of 41.60%-43.68%. New tax slabs will make Indian products more competitive vs Chinese output as Chinese Corporate tax rate of 25% is higher by 8% in case of New manufacturing units.

Availability of Technology or Rights to manufacture are assumed to be provided by Import countries at a royalty. Normal Royalty rates are 2-5%. This loss can be compensated from the savings in Manpower, Rentals and Income tax.

Bottom Line

Manpower, Corporate tax rate is a plus point to India in the current scenario of availing opportunity. Power Generation, Supply chain Infra will be a challenge. Our Visionary PM Modi ji has already announced a spent of INR 100 Lakh Crores (appx $ 1.35 Trillion in next 5 years) but this opportunity came too early.

CAA-Polity or Humanity ?

There has been lot of uproar ever since the Citizenship Amendment Bill became Citizenship Amendment Act 2019. This has been rebuffed by the political parties, news agencies, foreign diplomats. However, no specific answer could be had about the furor.

How is Citizenship determined

A person can be Indian Citizen by birth, descent, registration and naturalisation as per Citizenship Act, 1955

  • By birth:
    • Every person born in India after 25.01.50 but before 01.07.1987,
    • Every person born between 01.07.1987 and 02.12.2004, if either of parent was Indian Citizen at the time of birth
    • Every person born after 03.12.2004, if either of parent is Indian Citizen and other is not an illegal migrant.
  • By Descent:
    • A person born outside India after 25.01.1950, if father was a citizen of India by birth.
    • A person born outside India between 10.12.1992, 04.12.2004, if either of his/her parent was a citizen of India by birth.
    • If a person born outside India after 02.12.2004 has to acquire citizenship,
  • By Registration:
    • A person of Indian origin been a resident of India for 7 years
    • A person of Indian origin who is a resident of any country outside undivided India.
    • A person who is married to an Indian citizen and is ordinarily resident for 7 years.
    • Minor children of persons who are citizens of India.
  • By Naturalization:
    • A person can acquire citizenship by naturalization if he/she is ordinarily resident of India for 12 years (throughout 12 months preceding the date of application and 11 years in the aggregate)
  • By Acquisition of Territory (not prescribed)
    • If India acquires a foreign territory, the residents of the territory naturally becomes Citizens of India

Government’s Powers to regulate, define special category under several acts passed from time to time

The Foreigners Act, 1946 (TFA) defines a foreigner as a person who is not a citizen of India. Section 3 gives power to Central Government (CG) to make provisions in respect of a particular foreigner, prescribed class for prohibiting, regulating or restricting the entry of foreigners. Section 3A (b) of TFA, (w.e.f. 19.1.1957) empowers CG to pass an order exempting any individual foreigner or class or description of foreigner.

The Passport (Entry into India) Act, 1920 (TPEIA) Section 3(2)(a) empowers CG to exempt either absolutely or on any condition, of any person or class of persons rules requiring possession of passports. The rules made under this section should be passed in both Houses of Parliament within 30 days. The section 4 of TPEIA empowers any officer of CG to arrest and under section 5 CG may in general or special order direct the removal of any person without a passport.

The Passport Act, 1967 (TPA) authorises Government to issue travel documents such as (a) emergency certificate for person; (b) certificate of identity of the purpose of establishing the identity of person; (c) or other document as may be prescribed

Amendments in Citizenship Act

The laws are doctrines but need amendment according to the situation. There have been five amendments (1986, 1992, 2003, 2005, 2019) in The Citizenship Act 1955 including the recent one in 2019. The Citizenship (Amendment) Act, 2003, was more stringent with regard to illegal migrants from Bangladesh and provided that either parent should not be an illegal migrant.

The Citizenship (Amendment) Act, 2019 provides that any person belonging to Hindu, Sikh, Buddhist, Jain, Parsi or Christian community from Afghanistan, Bangladesh or Pakistan, who entered into India on or before the 31.12.2014 shall not be treated as illegal migrant. and that aggregate period of residence shall be reduced to 5 years from 11 years earlier for grant of Citizenship

It is apparent from the provisos, that CAA2019 provides fast track citizenship to the minorities in the three countries adjacent to India. The other communities are still eligible for citizenship through registration and naturalisation process. CAA2019 doesn;t takes away someone’s Citizenship.

Gandhiji’s promise to Hindus and Sikhs remained in Pakistan

Mahatma Gandhi on 07.07.1947 said that Hindus and Sikhs living in Pakistan have a right to come here if they do not want to live there. The GOI is bound to provide them employment, citizenship and comfortable life. Nehru was also of the similar view as those people never demanded partiion, they were the victims of the partition. In his interview, Kerala Governor Arif Mohammad Khan told ANI [article published on 21.12.2019]

There is no clear data on Non-Muslim population residing in Pakistan and Bangladesh. Independent Pakistan first carried out their census in 1951 and last one was 1998. The Non-Muslim Population remained in the range of 2-3% as per Pakistan as per their census. Bangladesh population census clearly shows a decline in non-muslims population from 23.2% to 9.6% in 2011.

Amid, the news of forced conversion surface every now and then from Pak and Bangladesh and even a percentile decline in persecuted minorities in these countries makes one to think of the promises our leaders once made, sub-standard life adjudicated and atrocities that are carried to them.

The Government of India shaped an overdue promise in to a Law without disturbing status of Indian Citizens.


Aryan Migration theory – Unscientific story?

Aryan Migration theory (AIT) was courted and forwarded by European Indologist around 200 years back. The theory was adopted by Britishers to rule India by degrade Indian civilization. AIT borrowed word Sanskrit name Arya from Rig Veda (ऋग् वेद) in which this word refers to a kind, favorable, attached to, true, devoted, dear, kind hearted. The Europeans found some common words spoken in both Sanskrit and European language such as पितृ [pitru] for Pedro or father in European. More words in below table :

AIT was coined at the time when most of the technologies either were not available or were in nascent stages. Even Excavation of Mohanjodaro started in 1912, DNA profiling in 1980, Astronomical software only came off very late. A conjecture based on premises lacking scientific evidences. AIT was never studied scientifically and lacked corroborative evidences.

With the discovery of fossils of highly advanced civilization near Rakhigarhi, Haryana. Earlier Chariots remains carbon dating ~2500 BC discovered in Sanauli, UP, India Paleontology of Thar region provides sufficient reasons to believe Saraswati Once existed as mentioned in Rigveda. It gives sufficient proofs to surmise that Indus Civilization is Rivgvedic Harappan Civilization

Let us try to analyse what scientifically proven evidences exists as on today to refute AIT theory. We will also see WHY there was a need for AIT.

There are many cycles of rise and extinction of civilizations. There are evidences of mankind existence traced to 370,000 years till 3,000 BC in India. (I will discuss later) . However, as per Biblical framework, the world came into existence only after 2349 BC after the world destroyed in Noah’s flood in 4004 BC. On the other hand using astronomy software, it is established that Kaliyuga started at 3102 BC when Lord Krishna returned to Vaikuntha. The Vedic claim is clearly a misfit to most popular biblical framework by 700 years. Interesting isn’t it?

Lets analyse what other faiths claim versus what modern science says.

Various faiths are of the view that the world came into being few thousand years ago, is in contrast to the modern Big Bang theory. Also there is no correlation from these beliefs about other stone-age findings world wide. The Indic Vedas, however, of the view that world has been created and destroyed several times. Clearly spanning to larger time line and encompassing various stages of Human development.

Having set the context, let us fast forward from Vedic Time to the Treaty of Spain and Portugal in 1479 to share half of the world each as a property. Treaty of Alcáçovas signed on 4th Sep 1479 between Castile (most of Spain) and Portugal (most powerful powers and hungry for more revenues of that time) for the division of the Atlantic Ocean and Overseas territories into two zones of influence. The treaty of Alcacovas can be considered to be start of colonialism. The first international document on generally accepted principle in the ideology and practice followed till decolonization in 19th and 20th centuries

Treaty of Tordesillas 1494-1506

Treaty of Alcacovas 1479

Treaty of Tordesillas 1494-1506 between Spain and Portugal ratified by Pope Julius II, head of Roman Catholic Church to divide and colonizing rights for all newly discovered lands of the world located between Portugal and Spain. According to the treaty, the lands to the east on the globe would belong to Portugal and the lands to the west to Castile (majorly Spain of today).

Division of World into two parts by Spain and Portugese under treaty

Now that the formal agreements to divide the world into two hemisphere to share amongst Portugal and Spain. Columbus (a Spanish Sailor) went westwards hemisphere and ‘discovered’ America in AD 1492. Vasco-Da-Gama 1460-1524 (a Portuguese Sailor) sailed eastwards to discover sea route to India or better known as colonial empire in Asia. He reached Indian shores, Calicut on 20th May 1498. It is known he made three trips to India and died in the city of Cochin on Christmas eve in 1524. One can read about what happened after these explorer reached on the shores of Indies.

While Spain and Portugal remained global power and colonization masters till 17th Century, rest of the Europe didn’t have any rhetoric. Their was identity crisis of nationalist people. Europeans found that some 70 words from Sanskrit matched with German language and there started adjoining Sanskrit language with European European. Few words are given in below table.

The Aryan Immigration Theory (AIT) was a theoretical framework created to claim the credit of much advanced and enrich Indian Vedic literature and civilization by Identity crisis struck Europeans. We will see how India was exploited not only financially, the intellectual literature (Vedas) were also ripped-off to fit in their narratives. British Colonisation envious of the great wealth generated by Portuguese and Spanish, England, France and Netherlands began to establish colonies and trade networks Series of wars in 17th and 18th Centuries including the Battle of Plassey in 1757, made Britishers a dominant colonial power.

Europeans Quest for Identity

By this eithteenth century, Spain and Portugal had established their own glorified identities and Britain had India as their colony. However, Germans didn’t have such Identity for their gratification. During this period German Indologist Herder 1744-1803 was fascinated by the Indian literature and culture. So much so, that he claimed Sanskrit to be his own. And the discovery of India was attributed to re-discovery of Europe. This philosophy of attachment with Sanskrit filled the Germans’ non-identity crisis. Another German Indologist Karl Wilhelm Friedrich Schlegel (1772-1829) studied Indian culture. Schlegal’s attempt to prove Germans of highly civilised nation and superior to Greeks and Romans, He looked upon India as his ancestors and described Sanskrit as mother of all languages. European identity needs and colonial indology led Aryan master race which was possibly the reason for second world war holocaust purely out of racism. Question : why they took Sanskrit as their own and not Indic Gods – Linguistic divide ? German William Jones 1746-1794 theorised how to map Indians on the Biblical framework. In doing so, he mapped ‘Manu’ as ‘Adam’ ‘Narasimha’ as ‘Nimrod’. Those Indian Elements which didn’t fit into Bible were distorted or rejected. As per Bible, god created world 4004 BCE and flood of Noah happened in 2349 BCE. So naturally, rejection of Indian Yugas spanning milions of years. Any text in Sanskrit that did not fit in Bible was termed as ‘mythology’. So much disappointed with the vastness and timeline Vedas belong that he said, “Either the first eleven chapters of genesis are true or the whole fabric of our national religion is false” (The God’s of Greece, Italy, Asiatic researchers, vol. 1, 1788:p 225)

Jones was the first to propose a racial division of India involving an Aryan invasion but at that time there was insufficient evidence to support it (Bates, Crispin (1995). “Race, Caste and Tribe in Central India: the early origins of Indian anthropometry”. In Robb, Peter (ed.). The Concept of Race in South Asia. Delhi: Oxford University Press. p. 231) . It was an idea later taken up by British administrators

Britishers took forward this theory of Aryan’s racism superiority to control its new colony ‘India’. Lord Thomas Macaulay was appointed 1830s Governor General of the Indian provinces won by the East India Company. Macaulay his great ambition was to convert India to a Christian country. However, he realized that the Vedas were considered very sacred by all Hindus. Also the Brahmans, who preserved the Vedas, commanded a great respect. He pioneered the English system of education in India with a hope that the effect of his new education system would be “prodigious” (his term). Macaulay wanted Indologist European scholar Max Muller (1823-1900) to write about the Vedas in such a way that they would be considered nothing more than collections of some crude rhymes written by illiterate nomadic Aryan invaders, who came from Central Asia to India on horse backs. Macaulay thought that the attestation of an academician would look more authentic and unquestionable.

Mueller propounded the theory of Arya as a race of a family of languages and who spoke them – linguistic divide. At the same time the church evangelists working in South India to construct a Dravidian race identity because it suited there Christianity expansion. as per Max Mueller Riv Veda claimed only Brahman, Kshatriya as Aryan and categorized Sudra as non-Aryan. He called “Arya” (or Aryan) a race even though the Vedas mention nowhere that “Arya” is a race. Only many years later Muller realized his mistake and tried to emphasize that “Arya” does not denote a race but people who speak “Indo-European” languages. But the damage had already been done and his hypothesis of Aryan Invasion Theory had become a historical “fact”.

Max Muller, being a devout Christian, while assigning date of the oldest Veda, the Rigveda, could not give an earlier date than the origin of the world, which according to the Bible is 4004 years before Christ. Later the scientists estimated that the earth is about 6 billion years old. Muller arbitrarily wrote that Aryans came to India in 1500 B.C. and the Rigveda was written in 1200 B.C.

According to Hindu traditions, Kaliyuga started on the day Lord Krishna breathed his last on this earth. When this happened there was a conjunction of seven planets – Saturn, Jupiter, Mars, Venus, Mercury, sun and moon. It is astronomically estimated that this occurred on February 18, 3102 B.C. The Vedas definitely existed much before ‘Mahabharata’ period).

Max Muller’s Aryan linguistic category was converted by Risley while carrying out as commissioner 1901 Census in India , carried out “Nasal Index” to classify jatis as Hindus and tribes as non-Hindus. He decided that Indian consists of 2378 main casts and tribes and 43 races.

We saw how, quest of power and colonization led to the need of converting, manipulating, fitting in a manner to justify their Ruling of India as a colony. No-one had ever heard of Aryans coming to India upto mid-nineteenth century. One had also not heard that foreign people of “Aryan race” invaded India, conquered the indigenous people of “Dravidian race” and pushed them to southern part of India. However, now all this is part of the Indian history written by the British rulers of India. Europeans were exposed to Sanskrit and the Hindu scriptures sometime in the seventeenth century. They discovered that Sanskrit and the European languages had many common words. Thus the western scholars arrived at a conclusion that the “Indo-European” languages must have had a common origin. Their hypothesis was that from Central Asia a section of Sanskrit speaking Aryans came to India and another section of the same people migrated to Europe. We also observed false theory of Aryan and Dravidian race just a divisive policy of colonial masters.

AIT proved to be a theoretical & ethnological concept after various discoveries since 1914 excavations by ASI

In around 1914, when the ancient cities of Harappa and Mohenjodaro in the Indus Valley were excavated, the archaeologists found by carbon-dating that they were at least 5,000 years old. They were beautifully planned cities with wide streets, magnificent buildings and good drainage system. Britisher’s were still defiant of AIT theory. They stated that the Hindu caste order was reason for India’s Poverty. But failed to explain how Brahmins with worship rituals contributed make India top with 30% of world GDP. Apparently, they were escaping their responsibility of famine and poverty due to extraction of resources, higher taxes on indigenous production, re-importing goods exported from India, etc. An estimated 3 Trillion USD was drained out of India by the colonial masters.

Eventhough Government of India has acknoledged the Aryan Myth as fake an a concoction of British Colonisation, it fails to remove the topic from the education system of the country. The Aryan Theory is still taught in everyday classes throughout India as history and fact despite the overwhelming proves against it. It also a well known fact that Max Muller had confessed during his later days

Paleontologist evidences

Some evidences Migration was actually outwards of India and not otherway round

Discovery of ancient stone tools rewrites
the history of technology in India : As per modern science, homo-erectus extinct 600000 years ago Modern man came into being 80000 years ago. Question who was making precision tools in 350000 years

Narmada Man
The discovery in 1982 of a fossilized skull in the central Narmada valley in Madhya Pradesh, India, provides the first scientifically recorded evidence of human skeletal remains from the Indian subcontinent dating to the late Middle Pleistocene of 300,000 to 150,000 years ago. Dr. Arun Sonakia of GSI described Narmada Man to the hominid taxon Homo erectus narmadensis.
As per Raj Vedam The excavation in Keezhadi, Tamil Nadu, based on the studies and available data, the carbon dating should be in an interval of 821 BCE to 2974 BCE for the terminus layer.

Charriot excavated in Sanauli

is another proof that Horse domestication coincides if not precedes that of in Eurasia in BCE ~ 2500

Were Shrinking and shifting Rivers were reasons of extinction of Harrappan Civilisation?

Another study by A R Nair, S V Navada and S M Rao in their study on ground water problems in Thar Desert states that Reconstruction of the past climate in the region from palaeoclimatological and palaeontological studies indicate that cooler and pluvial conditions in the Holocene were present in thisregion during which recharge to these aquifers
could have taken place

The Indus civilization was the largest—but least known—of the first great urban cultures that also included Egypt and Mesopotamia. Named for one of their largest cities, the Harappans relied on river floods to fuel their agricultural surpluses. Today, numerous remains of the Harappan settlements are located in a vast desert region far from any flowing river.

Saraswati River is known as the holiest river of India, as much as it has retained its sacred character right from the Rigvedic age to the present day. The name`Saraswati’ is frequently used most of the ancient literatures like Rigveda, Yajurveda, Mahabharatha and Puranas. The Rigveda is supposed to be the oldest text which was probably composed more than 8000 years ago. [10]

Genetic Evidences

An Ancient Harappan Genome Lacks Ancestry from Steppe Pastoralists or Iranian Farmers (R1N1) [11]

The individual was from a population that is the largest source of ancestry for South Asians
Iranian-related ancestry in South Asia split from Iranian plateau lineages >12,000 years ago
First farmers of the Fertile Crescent contributed little to no ancestry to later South Asians

Conclusion [3]&[5]

The story of the Aryan invasion theory reveals how a thesis that reflected the European cultural experience of India gradually transformed itself into the ‘historical truth’ about India. This thesis had grown within a specific system of theological and historical beliefs that Europeans shared and depended for its coherence and plausibility on this system. Its fundamental theoretical outlines reflected conceptual patterns in the European cultural experience, rather than any scientific or empirical research into the Indian past. [Marianne Keppens and Jakob De Roover]

At the root of the trouble lies the dating of the Vedas to 1200 BCE by the German Scholar Max Muller. He did it on a very ad hoc basis and when his
contemporaries, such as Goldstucker, Whitney and Wilson, challenged his methodology, he surrendered by saying, “Whether the Vedas were composed in 1000 or 2000 or 3000 BC no one on earth can ever determine.” The pity is that in spite of such a candid confession by Max Muller himself many of his followers even today stick to this date, or at the most give concession to 1500 BCE. [BB Lal 2015]

Must watch more videos

  1. Timesof India on Harrappan Proof 
  2. Another report from TimesofIndia
  3. The Aryans were indigenous: neither invaders or immigrants – BBLAL, 2017
  4. Macaulay’s Minutes
  5. Orientalism and the Puzzle of the Aryan Invasion Theory
  6. Special Contribution of India to Knowledge System
  7. Dr Raj Vedam’s Video through Youtube Channel Srijan Talks
  8. Swarajy Mag on Chariot found in Sanauli, UP,
  9. Indiatimes report on Rakhi Garhi, Haryana
  10. Regional Remote Sensing Centre, NRSC/ISRO, Dept. of Space, Govt. of India, Jodhpur
  11. An Ancient Harappan Genome Lacks Ancestry from Steppe Pastoralists or Iranian Farmers
  12. Treaty Image Credit Treaty of Tordesillas 1494-1506 By Original: Biblioteca Nacional de LisboaPhoto: User:Joserebelo – Biblioteca Nacional de Lisboa, Public Domain,
  13. By Nagihuin – Own work, CC BY-SA 4.0,
  15. Ancient civilizations continuity civilization harappan, etc… large period of rishis, enormous material ignored and forgotten hindu order created poverty but its invasion indian knowledge seeded world vut told otherwise no identity by vedic science riv veda mentioned sarawati in 2000 BCE while claimed that it was written in 1500BCE Astronomy derived dates provides sufficient proofs But claimed that Upanishads, Brahmas, Samahitas written in 300 CE R1a genome gone outwards not inward of India Mainstream narrative states Indian expanded eastwards not Westward, Indic civilization is recent While there are series of ancient history. They created an anchor points and called all Indian chronology as mythology

Evolution of USD as forex

What is Foreign Exchange?

There are several accepted Global/Reserve currencies viz USD, GBP, YEN, EURO etc. A country needs currency to settle Import/exports of goods and services and grants and subsidies in various forms.  Besides countries keep Gold, SDR, Sovereign Debts, Treasury bills.  Countries keep Foreign exchange in their vault to regulate exports and imports, meet expenses, repay withdrawing investors in case of war or emergency, settle loans, Investments, and goods & services bills;

Currency Composition of Official Foreign Exchange Reserve (COFER)

The foreign currency reserves of all countries contributes around 58% of USD. Out of 11.418 Trillion USD Forex reserve, 6.617 Trillion USD are in US Denominated USD. This was 51% in Q4 of 2016. Confidence in USD by other countries have been increasing over 2 years.
[Refer Graph 1]

Why USD as an acceptable Forex

US constructed its Gold Repository vault at Denver Mint in 1935. The Gold stored at Denver Mint between Jan 1937 to June 1937 was 10947 metric tones and by March 1941 the Gold storage swelled to 19757 metric tones which was 65.58& of total US Gold reserves.

Prior to 1944 Bretton Woods agreement, most countries were on the gold standard. This also meant that all the countries were liable to settle their currency liabilities in Gold. In 1944, countries met in New Hampshire, and agreed to peg the exchange rate for their currencies to the U.S. dollar. US being having largest gold reserves that time, gave confidence to countries for backing their currencies with Dollar

IMF in 1969, created a monetary reserve currency to supplement existing money reserves of member countries created in response to the limitation of gold and dollars as mean to settle international account

Constraint in Supply of USD to meet increasing needs of the world

During 1970s, in order to combat inflation countries began demanding gold for the dollars. Rather than allow Fort Knox to be depleted of all its reserves, President Nixon in his controversial economic policies leading to stagflation, separated gold from USD pegging (already world’s top reserve currency at that time)

Concerns over US Deficit resulting in value of USD

in 2009, China and Russia raised concerns of intrinsic value of USD in case the inflation sets. US might print US Treasury to support its debts and its budget deficit.

They demanded for a new Global Currency not connected to individual nations and is relatively stable independent of characteristic change in individual currencies.

Yuan was awarded the status of reserve currency by IMF on 30th November, 2015. Yuan also found its place in Special Drawing Rights (SDRs) Basket on 1st October 2016. The other currencies forming part of SDR are Euro, Yen, GBP and USD. To be able to be able to freely trade as forex, Yuan must be free-float currency.

Is USD still a better bet

Answer is Yes, as the other countries hold 6.6 Trillion Dollars in their COFER and any devaluation in USD will lead to severe financial impacts on other countries. Therefore, it is in best interest of the other countries to keep faith in USD.

At the same time, it is important to note that the US Debt-GDP ratio has been continuously rising since 2007 and is at 108% in 2020. The similar ratio was observed in 1941 when World War ended. Since FED rates are very low, a ratio Debt-GDP ratio of 300% is considered as comfortable. This ratio at 50% can be alarming for other developing countries with higher interest rate.

Inflation or Recession in US can lead to higher interest and higher debt servicing ratio, which can raise nerves of other countries. [Refer Graph 2]

Is Gold changing hands? Are we prepared?

An estimated above the ground 190,040 Metric Tonnes Gold exists in the world and 50,000 Metric Tonnes Gold still to be mined.

The Current Gold reserves of top 10 Countries. The total Gold reserves of 20 Countries is 30,000 Metric Tonnes (~18%) of Total gold available in the world.

US Central Bank still number 1 in terms of holding Gold of ~8100 Metric Tonnes is almost halved since start of its Gold Repository in 1941. At the same time. India holds only 633 Metric Tonnes in 2019. While Germany, Italy, France, China, Russia holds sizable chunk of Gold reserves. India needs to evaluate its Gold reserve Position vis a vis its Forex reserves [refer graph 3]

Is increase in Forex a Euphoria?

India’s Foreign exchange reserves rose to all time high and are currently at 476 Billion USD. India’s COFER consists of 6.8% as Gold while rest 93.2% is in foreign currency, SDRs, and reserved position with IMF. The Gold reserve ratio is 16% for the top 20 countries. US Tops the list with 77% as Gold reserves.

US, Germany, Italy, France holds Gold reserves more than 50% of their total exchange reserves. However, China holds 3% and India holds 7% This is a contrast for developed and developing countries. [refer graph 4]

Similarly, Net FDI Inflow of 529 Billion USD since 1998 till 2019 are valuing at 37 Lakh Crores as against their value of investment of 30 Lakh Crores Rupees. MTM liability of reduction by 25% due to dollar valuation. — Saving However, Gold value would have been more than doubled.

The accretion to foreign currency to our foreign exchange reserves since 1998 is 413 Billion USD, however, had this addition to foreign currency been invested at prevailing rate in respective years, the Forex reserves would have valued at 959 Billion USD. [refer table 1].

Of course, market equilibrium of increased demand and limited supply of Gold would try to set in. But then we should also remember that G7 countries hold big Gold reserves.

Bottom line

We have demonstrated that accretion of Gold inplace of USD would have doubled in terms of its current value. Whereas holding USD since 1998 gave us a saving of 25% due to MTM valuation of Dollar. Its time that we carefully evaluate our COFER in order to avoid any unforeseen USD valuation risk for our hard earned Foreign Exchange reserves.



India is 3rd in terms of GDP at PPP

Nominal GDP is the aggregation of all Gross Value additions in one year in any country at prevailing prices. It sums up all Business outputs, Business Investments, Government spending and Net Imports

Nominal GDP of top 10 Countries

“World Economic Outlook Database, October 2019”

But wait before we jump into conclusion let us try to understand how the denominator USD itself gets calculated

We all know value of one Rupee today is more than one Rupee tomorrow. This universal truth is valid for all the ‘financial assets’ in the world (including Fixed Deposits, Shares, PPFs, etc.). If we deflate value of a Dollar in 1960 with the yearly inflation that US underwent till 2019, the residual value of a dollar is 11.6 cents. Similarly a Rupee in 1960 has a purchase value of 1.4 Paisa due to inflation in India. We saw that Indian currency lost its value on time horizon faster than USD due to relatively higher inflation rate viz a viz US economy’s inflation. Indian Rupee lost its value 8.26 faster than USD. When we multiply this inflation parity factor of 8.26 with exchange rate of 4.76 INR/USD as on 1960, we get value of 39.33. This is the value of Dollar had all the valuations being driven by inflations/deflations.

Dollar value versus INR (split between inflation and other factors)

But that is not the case as Dollar rate on 2019 was 71 INR/USD. There is a settled gap of 32 Rupees as on 2019. This means that parity rate is not purely out of inflation of countries, there are other factors responsible for the gap in parity index such as standard of living, cost of living (inflation), resources of countries, fiscal health of the countries etc. viz a viz to each other.

The Big Mac Index is the price of the burger in various countries that are converted to one currency (such as the US dollar) and used to measure purchasing power parity. As per Big Mac Index USD should value at 33 INR in terms of purchase power of an identical burger in India vs USA. INR 33 is Not very far from our calculated value of 39 INR. As we mentioned earlier, this is due to several factors working simultaneously on the valuation of relative parity index of two countries.

Big Mac Index source :
Hey we just demonstrated that the value of burger is different in different countries

The World Bank releases PPP index calculated by estimating set of prices for items chosen from a common list of precisely defined items participating countries. These common lists include both regional items, priced in the region, as well as global items, priced in all ICP regions. These sets of prices cover the whole range of final goods and services included in the GDP: household consumption expenditures, government expenditures, and gross fixed capital formation expenditures. [2]

Now that we have Nominal GDP in local currency and PPP Index, let us divide both numbers. you will find a new global power order. China tops the list with 27.31 Trillion USD followed by 21.44 Trillion USD and India at number 3 position with 5.75 Trillion USD GDP at PPP.

BJP leaders must stop saying publicly that India’s GDP sixth largest in the world. … India’s GDP third largest today

Dr Subramaniyam Swamy (Rajya Sabha MP, Fmr. Union Cabinet Minister, Harvard Ph.D in Economics ) in his tweet on 19th March 2019


  2. “World Economic Outlook Database, October 2019”.

Interesting YouTube Video


A thread by RapperPandit ↗️ #India4Kashmir

#MythBuster#KYD Series

Fascinating Truth of KAMASUTRA &it’s Present Version
-Does Kama mean S3X in our culture?
-Who Was Great Vastyanan Muni, Fakely Presented in Utsav Movie
-What do Nastik&Astik Mean?
-What are the SIX दर्शन of Sanatan Dharma?
-What is Purusharth?

n Stand Up! Comedy is Not Funny-Mostly Vulgar, Left-Centric, Anti-Hindu
*4 Consistencies in StandUps:-
-West is Cool, Hindu is Regressive & Fool.
-Kamasutra is compared with Porn
-S3X is Cool for Left, Perversion for Right
So Friend Time to Know our Dharma in #KYD Series

n Before IT Revolution, Most People in the West, Knew India as a Land of Snake Charmers & KamaSutra (Perceived as a S3x Manual)
Because this was, what was Shown to them Mostly
The Below Thread Will Unravel Many Essentials , We All Indians Must Know and Feel Proud of. Let’s Go!

n – The #Thread Starts with Legendary King Vikramaditya-ChandraGupta II
Vikramaditya Ruled from 5th-6th Century AD . He had 9 Original Navratnas (2 Most Known).
-Kalidasa was one of the Prolific Sanskrit Writer.
-Varahmira Great Mathematician/Astrloger (Knew Aryabhatta)

n Vatsyana Muni- was a Great Sage, a Logician & Prolific Writer on Topics of Logic&KamaShastra
-Vatsyayana Muni of Nyay Sutra Bhashya & KamaSutra r the same
-Kalidasa&Varahmihra knew him. His Writings were so impactful that Kalidasa included it in his Works & So did Varahmihra

n Basics:
“Ekam Sat Vipra Bahuda Vadanti”- is a Fake&Incomplete
Many make it to Sound a Secular Quote in Indian Culture. It is in Rigveda 1.164.46, when nothing except Sanatan Dharm Existed
Correct Quote Means, “Supreme Power is One, &People call that as Various Mahabhut also”

n SIX Darshans r Pillars of Sanatan Philosophy
– Darshans are the Most IMP Sutras(Formulae) by AncientRishis, & Commentaries (Bhashaya) by Competent Ones.
– Why We say “A Person Can be a Nastik, Still be a Sanatani”
Pls See the Pic in Detail- U’ll understand Why

n Both Astik&Nastik r Sanatanis &Agree to presence of SupremeForce
-आस्तिक:Our Identity is Aatma, Not Body. Vedas are Supreme
-नास्तिक:Our Identity is Body&Aatma-inside (No UniversalAtma); dont agree to Vedas as Source of UniversalKnowledge n For Aastiks, NyayaDarshan is one of the Finest as it suggests Logic&Reasoning will lead to Truth
-Bhashya (Commentary) on Sutra may be more significant than the Sutra Itself
-e.g. adiShankara did Several Bhashya
Vatsyayana Bhashya on Nyaya Darshan Sutra was Most SIGNIFICANT !

n Nyay means- Arriving at Truth thru Logic & Reasoning.
So मुझे न्याय चाहिए doesn’t mean I want Justice.
It means I want the truth, which is arrived thru Logic & Reasoning.
This Great Nyay Shastra Commentary was Done by Vatsyayana-Nyaya Sutra Bhashya n What Often Used Purusharth (पुरुषार्थ) Means?
It Simply Means: “To do what is in our Hands with ultimate Goal of Moksha” – Freedom from Cycles of Birth & Death
Purusharth is TriVarga- Dharma, Artha, Kaam
Moksha, is not in our Hands, it Cannot be a Purusharth

n Kama is not S3X, Kama is a Desire that Pushes us for Action
S3X is 1 of the many Kamas
So Consciousness => Kama <=> Artha
Both Kama&Artha to be done is Such that they Uphold Dharma
If you Follow the Dharmic Path & at Last Stage if Kama is fulfilled 100% , You Achieve Moksha

n-So Considering the Importance of Trivarga Purusharth, Lot Of Works have been created
1. Dharma- (duties) ManusSmriti/Grihasutra/Aapastamba/Vashsisht
2. Artha-(practices) ArthaShastra etc
3. Kama-(desires) KamaSastra etc n-An Act for S3X, that Creates Life, Can Never be BAD, if in accordance of Dharma
It is Just a Basic Need in गृहस्थाश्रम, &Not a GOAL Of Life, like Food& Shelter
ArtWork On Outer Walls in Ancient Temples Normalized the act as a Basic, Saving Higher Thoughts for inner गर्भगृह

n Vastyanan’s KamaSutra is Essentialty:
1. An Art of Finding a Partner
2. An Art of a Happy Married Life, so that, GrihasthAshram is enjoyable.
3 .Only One 1 of 7Chapters Dives into Explixit S3xual acts ( & Remember children dont’t Come from Thin Air) n However, the Pristine KamaSutra was rendered into a P0rn flick when passages pertaining to “Harem”, “br0thels” were added
British then added Explicit Drawings in the Text which were never present in the Original Palm Leaves

n KamaSutra under the name of Richard Francis Burton (1883) compiled form Flawed Interpretation of The Commentary of various Authors like Jayamangla, Printed from a Fake KamaShastra Society, & Included Illustrations for Marketing Purpose pertaining to Preceding Mughal Empire

n Richard Burton, Instantly 1883 edition became a rage in West & Most Pirated Books. Officialy illegal to publish in England&USA till 1962,. The Reason was Highly Orthodox Societies in West which considered expression S3xuality a Taboo & had many Acts with Strict Restrictions

n Sh Girish Karnad ji was a self confessed #UrbanNaxal
In Movie Utsav in a garb of Showing Ancient India as Liberal, he misled audience on Slavery, Casteism, Brothels. Mṛcchakatika drama, on which Utsav is based, Vatsyana Character was Nowhere in it , It was a Fake Insertion

n Literature& Movies Show Vatsyanana as a peeping Tom & a P0rn writer, than a Maharishi.
Let’s Pay Naman to Vatsyanana who not only gave us the NyaySutrya Darshan Bhashya( Logic&Reasoning) but Sutras of Art of Living Life to the Fullest, Not perversion as it was showcased.

n This Thread is dedicated to #SanataniWarrior @RohitInExile @RituRathaur @Sanjay_Dixit @ARanganathan72 @dharmadispatch @RadharamnDas
who keep Exposing the DeepRooted #HinduPhobia & Keep Enlighting the Gen Nxt thru Logic,Reasoning &True History
We are Tolerant but Not Blind! n Our #SanataniWarrior Group at @i4Kashmir , Works DayNight with निष्काम भाव to bring forth the Unknown Truths!
Due to Limitation on Twitter, I have started putting detailed articles on
I will keep updating in detail there (…)

The above #Thread thread has been posted as an article at below Link . Hope you found this thread useful.
You too are a #SanataniWarrior like us. (

Life Measurement – Years? or Breathes?

Life is a watch as much as the key God moves [Hindi translation जीवन एक घडी है जितनी चाबी भरी भगवन ने उतनी ही चलती है]. An average man lives around 70 years and during his life time his breaths and heart beats are limited. A man lives more or less his quota of beats and breathes unless he dies accidentally.

This principle is applicable to all living being on the earth. The life expectancy as we see today depends on lot of other parameters such as lifestyle, pollution, eating habits, immunity, exercise levels, exercise types.

Two oxygen atoms were walking along the street when one stops and says, “Oh my goodness, I feel more radical. I think I’ve lost an electron!” “Are you sure?” asks his companion. “Yes,” replies the first oxygen atom. “I’m positive.”
Old chemistry joke

As we know, Oxygen oxidizes every thing metal, non-metal. Rusting of metal is a well-known example of oxidation. Oxygen is reactive to almost every element.  Our body also oxidizes. Our body is made of power plants called mitochondria which burns Oxygen and fats to produce adenosine triphosphate (ATP).  ATP is kindly of charged battery which supplies energy for most cellular activities. 

Mitochondria processes one atom of Oxygen and two hydrogen atoms and forms water molecule during this chemical process. In this process, toxics (pollutants) are generated called free radicals

Free radicals are unstable atoms which have lost their atoms in the process of chemical process tries to restore their initial state by stealing atoms from adjacent cells and thus destablizing the entire chain.  Over production of free radicals can damage cells, causing illness and aging. 

An average man takes around 74 Crores (740 Million) of breathes during his life span of 70 years (avg). During this time his heart beats 300 Crores times (3 Billion) 4 times more than the breathes he takes.

Following table gives a fair estimate of how beats and breathes are observed by other species of living beings

We observed that there is no correlation between weight and age of a species in terms of years.  However, we noticed that the number of breath and beat is higher than human being in case of animal species living lesser number of years.  Now we will see the numbers of heart beats and breaths by a species during its life time (on an average)


We saw total breaths ranges from 74 Crores (Human) to 16 Crores (cats and dogs).   in their respective life span.

breaths per year

In the table on left, we observed that on an average all species take 1 Crores breaths per year. The intent to of this table is not to establish life expectancy, but to establish correlation between life and breaths.

The breath rate per year amongst man, cows, cats and dogs are in the similar range of breaths per year i.e. 1.00-1.25 crores.  Please observe that all species have lived together for ages.  Man domesticates cows, dogs and cats.  Is this the reason? More scientific studies should be carried out.

Chicken takes 3.85 Crores breaths while Monkey takes 2.23 Crores breaths per year.  

Tortoise, Elephant, Camel, Pig are in the range of 0.21 – 0.74 Crores breaths per year.  We saw higher the breath rate lower the life expectancy in terms of years.

Did you notice? Whale the heaviest mammel on earth, takes about only 10 thousand breaths in an year and still survives 80 years of its average life.
This is despite the fact that water consists only 1% oxygen as against 21% oxygen in the air. Isn’t this astonishing that Whale takes 1000 times less breathes than human beings and that too in water which oxygen is further 20 times lesser. So by taking 20,000 lesser oxygen whale is capable of surviving a life span equal to human being

We saw more oxygen per minute is actually oxidising and reducing our life span.  By controlling our breaths we can control and limit damage by oxygen. In Ancient time, Sages use to live 1000 years. They use to do meditation and samadhi in clean pollution free environment.  They probably trained their breathing technique to extend their life span.  A video by Yog Guru Baba Ramdev is worth watching for beginners (ailing people particularly with breathing problem should consult their doctors before training breathing techniques)

By limiting oxygen consumption we can actually live stronger, healthier, radical free, youthful life till eternity.



Ekatma Manava Darshan

A Blog by Mr Rajagopalan

Prodded by ModiJi, I’m writing about a book that I read & why I think it is important
One of the important book that I’ve read recently is the Sanatan Dharmik, completely Indian, Integral Humanism viz Ekatma Manava Dharshanam of Pt Deendayal Upadhyaya Ji
Being Sanatan loosely translated as Eternal, it is good for all times to come. It propunds the need right from an Individual, to a group to citizens at large to attain the 4 Purusharts of Sanatan existence comprising
1-Arth ( various aspects of wealth creation)
2-Kaama (Pleasure or seeking love, procreation)
3-Keeping Dharma (Righteous Ethics & Values) foremost
4-So that the spiritually inclined can attain Moksha or realisation of oneself
It appealed to me both as an ism for advancement of the individual & the society at large from Panchayat to the Union of India
As I read it I was amazed at the extent to which #Anthyodya is implemented delivering good governance & EMPOWERment to the deprived to help them fight their war on poverty & win
It is also the fountain head of the largest political party in the world, the BJP
The purpose of this blog is to generate an interest in reading & understanding it & making it a matter of research by Universities teaching Humanities & Politics
There’s a compelling case for it’s Understanding & adoption perennially as opposed to other isms which are circumstantial

Twitter : nrajabpcl


“Calculus” – Work of Mādhava of Sangamagrama

A Thread by Aabhas Maldahyar 

Profile pictureAabhas Maldahiyar 🇮🇳


Profile pictureMar 20th 2020, 3 tweets, 3 min read 1/n #SadarPranam @SrBachchan ji.
No it’s not Newton who should get complete credit for Calculus.Had Mādhava of Sangamagrama (14th Century) & his school not been there “Calculus” would have been incomplete. Read thread.

Amitabh Bachchan




T 3476 – “.. better work happening nowadays with people working from home. brings opportunity to trust our fellow colleagues ” ~ Sg

View image on Twitter



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2/n Had Mādhava not been there we couldn’t have moved to infinite form of mathematics from finite form. In Europe,the first such series were developed by James Gregory in 1667. Mādhava’s work is notable for the series,but what is truly remarkable is his estimate of an error term.

3/n The formulas in Sanskrit👇🏼

Source for 2/n & 3/n
“On an Untapped Source of Medieval Keralese Mathematics” by CT Rajagopal & Ms Rangachari (… )



Aryan Invasion Theory – Debunked by Aabhas

Thread by Aabhas Maldahiyar
Aabhas Maldahiyar 🇮🇳@Aabhas24Columnist| Urban Designer|Author| Ex-Marxist | My latest book #ModiAgain (story of my transformation) preorder at 27, 2019  5 min read

1/n I offer my #SadarPranam to Ishwara within @tjoseph0010 . There are abundant flaws in his article that you shared William Sir. My Pranam to you too while in below thread of tweets I debunk “Aryan Migration(Invasion) Theory”wrt the article.

Tony sir,pl don’t respond until n/n

William Dalrymple

Can the arrival of the Aryans in India explain the disconnect between Harappan and Vedic culture? … via @scroll_in

Can the arrival of the Aryans in India explain the disconnect between Harappan and Vedic culture?

There is a fundamental discontinuity between the two cultures, writes Tony Joseph in his book ‘Early Indians’.
 · South West, England
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2/n As a starting point one needs to understand literature of civilisation to know who they are & where they are from. The latest researches about “River Saraswati” had begun drying around 24ka.
Ref: Bhadra (2014). You may read full paper here …



3/n RigVeda,the oldest text of RigVeda talks about RiverSaraswati 65 times. In fact in earlier part, it talks about Sarasvati as greatest among all,hence the mightiest.
Check below 2.41.16

अम्बि॑तमे॒ नदी॑तमे॒ देवि॑तमे॒ सर॑स्वति । अ॒प्र॒श॒स्ता इ॑व स्मसि॒ प्रश॑स्तिमम्ब नस्कृधि ॥

4/n As per the theory that @tjoseph0010 has been subscribing to considers “Aryans” to have come to India in 2nd Millennium BCE, how did they mention about the river Saraswati as mighty of all though it had begun to dry 20k years before alleged arrival of Aryans.

5/n Of course Aryans didn’t had time-machine, or @tjoseph0010 you too fantasise that Aryans were that advanced? 😉

For more info on Geological aspects of Saraswati you may refer following papers Mary courty1986,Frankfort 1992,Khonde 2007,Clift 2012,Sarkar 2016,Singh2017,Dave2018

6/n Interesting point to enquire is that why Aryans don’t mention anything about the rivers or geography where the theory @tjoseph0010 uses hints then to come from? Did they not like their homeland? Why mention of only India?

7/n If the inhabitants of Indus Valley migrated to East & South, then why inhabitants of Tamil Nadu & Bengal too follow Vaidik Rituals. Infact a Tamil Hindu follows Vaidik ritual way more than a north-Indian (alleged Aryans)

8/n Further it gets even more interesting that while the theory @tjoseph0010 uses, clearly draws distinction between South & North wrt to Aryan-Dravidian Divide, but what gets interesting is that the First Sangam had Vaidik Rishi Agastya as chairman.

9/n I’m quoting from a book of an author who believes in Aryan Migration Theory but interestingly mentions “Sangam” as being founded by Agastya Rishi.

Though to keep the point of Aryan-Dravidian Divide,attributes Agastya as Dravidian.
World knows Agastya was a Vaidik Rishi. 😊


10/n Alain Danielou even cites First Sangam happening around 9000 BCE, which supports that Agastya lived 11ka hence Vaidik Wisdom is way older than what even this author believes.


11/n They contest that Aryans drove chariots into India from Pontic–Caspian steppe in 1800 BCE.

But what fails them is the amount of evidences that supports existence of “Horse Chariots” way earlier than this proposed date. I’m sharing evidences in appending tweets.

12/n Below points are taken from “Danino (2006)”.

BB Lal, SP Gupta & AK Sharma, Thomas & Joglekar reported horse teeth & bones from various Harappan Sites which date way before alleged entry of Aryans.


13/n Archaeologist Dhavalikar found horse’s remains daring to mid 3rd Millennium BCE. It was recognised as domestic horse (Equus Cabalus).

It was a significant blow to AIT/AMT warriors.

14/n Horse figurine were discovered from Mohenjodaro & Lothal.

It will be foolish to believe that People of Indus-Saraswati Civilisation sculpted them without ever seen them.


Perhaps the most interesting of the model animals is one that I personally take to represent a horse. I do not think we need be particularly surprised if it should be proved that the horse existed thus early at Mohenjo-daro.

—E. J. H.Mackay,one of the early excavators.

16/n Then @tjoseph0010 tries to show cultural distinction between Aryans & Harappans using mistranslations of Vedas.

He quotes RgVed (7.21.5,10.99.3) & translates “Shishnadeva” as “Phallus” calling Dravidians as Phallus worshiper while Aryans as hater through the quoted verses

17/n @tjoseph0010 , The ancient Sanskrit grammarian and etymologist Yaksha translated the word “Shisnadeva” as “unchaste people” in his nirukta.

I’m really failing to understand who gave you translation as “Phallus”. Now I’ll also explain u RV7.21.5 & 10.99.3 as u seem unaware

18/n @tjoseph0010 RigVeda 7.21.5
न यातव इन्द्र जूजुवुनोर् न वन्दना शिवष्ठ वेद्यािभः |
स शधर्दयोर् िवषुणस्य जन्तोमार् िशश्नदेवा अिप गुरतंनः ||

Griffith’s translation:
<Let our true God subdue the hostile rabble: let not the lewd approach our holy worship.”>
No “Phallus”!

19/n RigVeda 10.99.3
स वाजंयातापदुष्पदा यन सवषार्ता पिर षदत्सिनष्यन |
अनवार् यच्छतदुरस्य वेदो घनिञ्छश्नदेवानिभ वपर्सा भूत ||

<He seized the hundred-gated castle’s treasure by craft, unchecked, and slew the lustful demons.>
@tjoseph0010 where is Phallus Worshiper?

20/n While @tjoseph0010 agrees that Harappans worship “Shiva” he thought that the alleged “Aryans” didn’t. So I thought of telling him situations of RigVeda where “Rudra” is worshiped. Of 1028 hymn in RigVeda, 3 are for “Rudra”.

I’ll quote Richas in appending tweets.

21/n @tjoseph0010 Mahamrintujaya mantra comes in RV(7.59.12),YV(3.60),AV(14.1.17).

ॐ त्र्यं॑बकं यजामहे सु॒गन्धिं॑ पुष्टि॒वर्ध॑नम् ।
उ॒र्वा॒रु॒कमि॑व॒ बन्ध॑नान् मृ॒त्योर् मुक्षीय॒ माऽमृता॑त् ।
This Richa is also called the Rudra mantra, referring to the furious aspect of Shiva.

22/n Now the 21/n breaks myth that the alleged “Aryans” didn’t worship Shiva. It further clarifies that Shiva was being worshiped when Saraswati was still flowing as mighty one. Hence it further draws cultural similarity between Harappans & your foreign “Aryans”.

23/n Now I bring in a very interesting aspect. While @tjoseph0010 denies Shiva worship among alleged “People from Steppe” the Western Indologist have been drawing parallel line between “Shiva” & “Terminus”. Though unlike Tony sir,Roger considers “worship” not “denouncement”.


24/n Right from the time of Greek Invasion,westerners hv been fancied to call”Dionysus”&Shiva same just to justify “Aryan Tourism Theory “ cc @IndianInterest

Here is one such eg by Wendy D, though @devduttmyth keeps blaming Indians for same.
Read paper 


N/n In this thread (24 tweets)I’ve picked problems in article by @tjoseph0010 that supports “Aryan Migration Theory” written with excerpts from his book “Early Indians”.

I invite Tony sir to respond this rebuttal should he have enough substance.


Pingala & Fibonnaci Series

A thread by Aabhas Maldahiyar 🇮🇳

n #SadarPranam to Ishwara within you @TonyPannWBAL ji. Since you are talking about the “gorgeous sequence” I being an “Indian Architect” couldn’t hold back but to share India’s contribution in originating it.

Read this thread👇🏼

Tony Pann

It’s 11/23 or 1123. . The Fibonacci sequence is a series of numbers where every number is the sum of the two preceding it. Why important? It’s nature’s code! Fibonacci spirals are seen in everything from flowers to storm systems to the shape of galaxies.

View image on Twitter
6,854 people are talking about this

n Till 7yrs back I too believed that it was Fibonacci who crafted this beautiful sequence.

I did my UG Archi thesis on “Role of Applied Mathematics in Deriving Architectural Forms” in year 2011 but while continuing this research beyond B.Arch I came across Prof Deshpande. n He was retired HOD(Architecture) at VNIT,Nagpur. Reading about the use of Fibonacci Sequence in my thesis he revealed the Indian part of it. Which goes as below:

@TonyPannWBAL pl read carefully 👇🏼 n Way longer before “Jesus of Nazareth” is deemed to be born Sanskrit was at its peak in Bharata (what you call India) & Hindus we’re accumulating knowledge like there is no tomorrow.

Interestingly you always wish to circulate & spread your knowledge or else it’s of no use. n Sanskrit played a major role in propagation for its highly flexible characteristic.

Sanskrit was perfect Bhasha to compose poetry incorporating these learning & propagating them orally. n But our ancestors had a big challenge: finding a way to compose poems efficiently enough SK that they are relatively easier to remember as well as recite.

& then “Sanskrit Prosody” came in play: a methodology based on rhythms + arrangement of tones. n Prosody is a vast field of study where natural rhythms are determined in order to create a framework for poetry which would appealing to the ears.

Being naturally pleasant,the probability of it being remembered for a long time with minimal effort is giant. n This “pleasant” effect in Sanskrit is called “Chanda”. Hence, this poetry framework, whose aim was to produce pleasant poems, was called “Chandas” in Sanskrit. Hence the field was & is called “Chandaḥśāstra”. n @TonyPannWBAL ,you might be wondering that why am I touching upon Sanskrit Sutras & Poems.

😊Well, that’s the beauty of ancient Indian wisdom. Our art, is actually way beyond what west perceives it to be. n Our ancestors composed poems not merely as art forms but as highly sophisticated Mathematical concepts in order to pass the test of Sanskrit Shlokas. “Chandaḥśāstra” was one such mathematical concept which were widely used by the poets. n Let me elaborate. In Chanda Shastra,it’s all about 2 syllables: Short syllable which need 1 beat (Laghu) and Long syllable which require 2 beats (Guru).

One uses same concept while playing Tabla too. Here we call Short syllable as “Dhin” & Long syllable as “Dha”. n Now, let’s try to significance of this Chandaḥśāstra from a poet’s perspective.

Composition of each poem begins by fixing the total number of beats per shloka, hence creativity gets drastically confined as the content in each line must suffice “total beats per line.” n Hence, it’s essential for the composer to know well in advance, how he can arrange the Laghus & Gurus in each shloka & the probabilities for each shloka.

Let me put forward a simple hypothetical case of 2 beats per shloka. n With this assumption,since there are only 2 beats,it can either be filled with 2 Laghus or 1 Guru. It implies that there are 2 combinations.

Next, let’s consider 3 beats. Following combinations shall occur:
•1 Laghu & 1 Guru
•1 Guru & 1 Laghu
•All the 3 Laghus n Hence, we can have 3 combinations if we are asked to compose a shloka containing 3 beats.

If we follow this sequence,with 4 beats,we can have 5 combinations. With 5 beats,we can have 9 combinations & so on. n With 6 beats, we can have 13 combinations. With 7 beats, we can have 21 combinations. The game of sequence goes on and on.

What does it seem like? 1,2,3,5,8,13,21…

Fibonacci Series. Isn’t it? This is the base of “Chandaḥśāstra”

It gets more interesting. Pl read in👇🏼 n Rishi Pingala framed the so called “Fibonacci Series” that is root of Chandaḥśāstra ( 4th Cen BCE or earlier).

Apart from that he also laid concept for the pyramid of stacked numbers which globe calls as “Pascal’s Triangle” today. 😊 n Back then Mount Meru was common reference to the centre of Hindu civilization. Pingala had called his stack of numbers as “Maatra Meru” which claimed to converge towards the Golden Mean Ratio.

Source: “Venus Blueprint: Uncovering the Ancient Science of Sacred Spaces”

n We find a lot more in this book & the explanations are just too interesting. This is link for the book:

Hence Rishi Pingala had conceptualised it 2.5 Ka bp (…) n Though I don’t want to get into this right now but just briefing a bit. RigVeda (composed at least 24ka bp) too has mention of “Meru”. (Relate with 19/n).

Will share details of it in case you are interested. n Apart from Sanskrit poets, Hindustani & Carnatic musical Forms too have used this series perfectly.

In this video one can observe rhythms in Konnakol form (Carnatic music)that use so called Fibonacci Series.

n For ages,so called “Fibonacci Series”have been in use especially by Indian poets,classical musicians, as well as Architects.

There have been detailed commentaries of Pingala Chandaḥśāstra made by many ancient Indian scholars for their respective fields. n The Indian Astronomer-Mathematician Varahamihira(6th Cen CE) used this sequence in his works related to Binomial Coefficients.

Source: “An Algorithm to Generalize the Pascal and Fibonacci Matrices” by
Ilhan M. Izmirli (June,2015)

n Pingala & Varahamihira used the number series for their respective fields like Sanskrit Prosody & Astronomy.

Acharya Henchandra (12th Cen) wrote one of the most comprehensive commentary on it applying it to various other fields. n Acharya Hemachandra compiled his treatise in 1150 CE. Leonardo Fibonacci presented his thesis only in 1202 CE. (identical to that of Hemachandra).

Hence,even in the form of a treatise, it was presented by Hemachandra, before Leonardo Fibonacci by almost 5 decades. n Actually series is already known as “Hemchandra Fibonacci Numbers”, though yetthe originator Pingala is to get due credit.

Source: Butterfly in the Quantum World

An Earth Letter to Human !

THINK while we take a break!!

As #COVID__19 is to Human; Human are to Nature
Think of Nature was to find vaccine for itself of infestation by us ‘The Human Being’.

EARTH letter to Human👇

With 8 Billion, and still counting, you have caused severe damage to me.

#Deforestation has been major cause of disturbing my other family members animal. What if you were to live alone without Animals and Vegetation? You have shaved 3.9 million square miles (10 million Sq KM) of forest since start of 20th Century



#GlobalWarming has caused Glaciers been receding since 18000 BC. However, rate of depletion has increased alarmingly since Industrial revolution.
Ancient Dwarka Nagari was once an occupied place submerged into water. You must think again before it engulfs more land

Animals you eat have already outweighed the total weight of wild animal for your #NonVegetarian habits.
You bred them to satisfy your buds. Another cause of increase in green house effect.

How do I warn you of the pain I am suffering. You don;t understand my language. Hurricanes, Wild Fire, Rain deficit, floods. This is only a sign language I know


Now that we are taking a break. Choose your choices.

You can chose to cure my deeper sickness.

By protecting wild and wonderful form, you protect yourself.

What Future do you choose?

source …

@naturaize @nrajabpcl

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Sounds of the Sun

[Original story taken from

Data from ESA (European Space Agency) and NASA’s Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) has captured the dynamic movement of the Sun’s atmosphere for over 20 years. Today, we can hear the Sun’s movement — all of its waves, loops and eruptions — with our own ears.

This sound helps scientists study what can’t be observed with the naked eye.

“Waves are traveling and bouncing around inside the Sun, and if your eyes were sensitive enough they could actually see this,” said Alex Young, associate director for science in the Heliophysics Science Division at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland.

The Sun is not silent. The low, pulsing hum of our star’s heartbeat allows scientists to peer inside, revealing huge rivers of solar material flowing around before their eyes — er, ears. NASA heliophysicist Alex Young explains how this simple sound connects us with the Sun and all the other stars in the universe. This piece features low frequency sounds of the Sun. For the best listening experience, listen to this story with headphones. Credits: Produced at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center by Katie Atkinson and Micheala Sosby

Data from SOHO, sonified by the Stanford Experimental Physics Lab, captures the Sun’s natural vibrations and provides scientists with a concrete representation of its dynamic movements.

“We don’t have straightforward ways to look inside the Sun. We don’t have a microscope to zoom inside the Sun,” Young said. “So using a star or the Sun’s vibrations allows us to see inside of it.”

These are solar sounds generated from 40 days of the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory’s (SOHO) Michelson Doppler Imager (MDI) data and processed by A. Kosovichev. The procedure he used for generating these sounds was the following. He started with doppler velocity data, averaged over the solar disk, so that only modes of low angular degree (l = 0, 1, 2) remained. Subsequent processing removed the spacecraft motion effects, instrument tuning, and some spurious points. Then Kosovichev filtered the data at about 3 mHz to select clean sound waves (and not supergranulation and instrumental noise). Finally, he interpolated over the missing data and scaled the data (speeded it up a factor 42,000 to bring it into the audible human-hearing range (kHz)). For more audio files, visit the Stanford Experimental Physics Lab Solar Sounds page.​ Credits: A. Kosovichev, Stanford Experimental Physics Lab

These vibrations allow scientists to study a range of complex motions inside the Sun, from solar flares to coronal mass ejections.

“We can see huge rivers of solar material flowing around. We are finally starting to understand the layers of the Sun and the complexity,” Young said. “That simple sound is giving us a probe inside of a star. I think that’s a pretty cool thing.”

The sounds of the Sun are on display at the NASA Goddard Visitor Center in Greenbelt, Maryland. An immersive art installation, called Solarium, uses vivid imagery and sonification to transport listeners to the heart of our solar system.

Banner image: Stylized illustration of the Sun with an animation of a sound wave superimposed. Credit: NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center

By Katie Atkinson and Micheala Sosby
NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md.

Last Updated: July 25, 2018 Editor: Rob Garner

Harrappans were Vedic and didn;t ate Beef

A thread by Aabhas Maldahiyar

Sadar Pranam to the God within you @HartoshSinghBal ji. You are absolutely wrong. It’s a false claim that ancient Indians ate beef & Harappans weren’t Vedic. Read thread 👇🏼& you may respond in your full capacity. Cc @Sanjay_Dixit @sankrant @ShefVaidya @RituRathaur @TajinderBaggaHartosh Singh Bal@HartoshSinghBal

the harappans ate beef, the vedic people ate beef. any one laying claims to an indian past can do not better than to dig into a juicy tenderloin …Hartosh Singh Bal@HartoshSinghBalThe National Security Act should be reserved for people like Kamal Nath. …336Twitter Ads info and privacy350 people are talking about this

Let me start with how this notion became popular & then I will bust the related myth. There is no mention of beef eating in Vedas or any Sanatan scriptures. After the Islamic invasion in India,sultans tried to hurt and demean the Hindu sentiments through cow slaughter.

n Though Akbar & Humayun stopped the practice to keep off the wrath.
@iraghuvansh the great pundit of RJD said in an election rally on October 2015, “It’s written in Vedas that Rishi-Maharshi also used to eat beef… There is no point discussing it at present.”

n I’m not sure whether this political stooge of pseudo secularism does know the Sanskrit language or had he gone through the Vedas at least once. & media morons ran after him & clandestinely spread this 

misconception all around about ‘Cow slaughter’ & ‘Beef eating’ in Vedas. n Another self styled expert in Vedas & Hindu scriptures Dwijendra Narayan Jha (whom u mention) a prominent member of the Communist school, exhorts the gibberish about same beef eating and cow 

slaughter without understanding the Vedas, Hindu scriptures & Indian values. n Engineered by his love for beef and appeasement of few community, he has written a book titled as “The Myth of the Holy Cow” in which he tried only to customize the beef eating in the denying Hindu society. n His opinion was highlighted by ‘BBC Hindi section’ under a caption, भारत में गोहत्या कब, कैसे पाप बना (When and how cow slaughter counted as a sin in India). This article is full of untruth and just a propaganda for beef eating without giving any reference from scriptures. n He appeared in the media like ‘Daily O’ through another beef lover Ursila Ali under a caption Why Hindus stopped eating beef and began to worship cows. His articles are full of concoction of anti-Hindu politics and the propagation for cow killing. n Veda exponent Adi Shankara, Maharshi Dayananda Saraswati or Shri Aurobindo categorically declared cow as holy being and never included as any purpose of slaughter anyway anywhere in the scriptures like Vedas and authenticated Puranas. n There has been larger conspiracy behind demeaning the scripture. I’ll explain it in later thread but prior to that I’m explaining how Beef Eating isn’t part of Scriptures. Concentrate 👇🏼 n हि॒ङ्कृ॒ण्व॒ती व॑सु॒पत्नी॒ वसू॑नां व॒त्समि॒च्छन्ती॒ मन॑सा॒भ्यागा॑त् । दु॒हाम॒श्विभ्यां॒ पयो॑ अ॒घ्न्येयं सा व॑र्धतां मह॒ते सौभ॑गाय ॥ RV 1.164.27
जैसे पृथिवी महान् ऐश्वर्य को बढ़ाती है वैसे गौयें अत्यन्त सुख देती हैं, इससे ये गौयें कभी किसीको मारनी न चाहियें n यः पौरु॑षेयेण क्र॒विषा॑ सम॒ङ्क्ते यो अश्व्ये॑न प॒शुना॑ यातु॒धान॑: । यो अ॒घ्न्याया॒ भर॑ति क्षी॒रम॑ग्ने॒ तेषां॑ शी॒र्षाणि॒ हर॒सापि॑ वृश्च ॥ RV 10.87.16 n Interpretation:
तेजस्वी नायक को चाहिए कि जो राष्ट्र में पीड़ा पहुँचानेवाले प्राणी मनुष्य के मांस को खाकर अपने को पुष्ट करते हैं या अच्छे घोड़ों को नष्ट करते हैं, गौवों के दूध छीनते-सुखाते हैं-दूषित करते हैं उनके शिरों और उनके प्रमुख जनों को नष्ट करे ॥१६॥ n अनागोहत्या वै भीमा कृत्ये
मा नो गामश्वं पुरुषं वधीः | AV 10.1.29

निर्दोषों को मारना निश्चित ही महा पाप है | हमारे गाय, घोड़े और पुरुषों को मत मार | n घृतं दुहानामदितिं जनायाग्ने मा हिंसी:
YV 13.49

सदा ही रक्षा के पात्र गाय और बैल को मत मार | n आरे गोहा नृहा वधो वो अस्तु
RV 7.56.17

गौ- हत्या को जघन्य अपराध घोषित करते हुए मनुष्य हत्या के तुल्य मानता है और ऐसा महापाप करने वाले के लिये दण्ड का विधान करता है | n ब्रीहिमत्तं यवमत्तमथो माषमथो तिलम्
एष वां भागो निहितो रत्नधेयाय दान्तौ मा हिंसिष्टं पितरं मातरं च

हे दांतों की दोनों पंक्तियों ! चावल खाओ, जौ खाओ, उड़द खाओ और तिल खाओ |
यह अनाज तुम्हारे लिए ही बनाये गए हैं | उन्हें मत मारो जो माता – पिता बनने की योग्यता रखते हैं | n RV 6.28 translates to following:
1. Everyone should ensure that cows are free from miseries and kept healthy.
2. God blesses those who take care of cows.
3. Even the enemies should not use any




on on cows

4. No one should slaughter the cow

n 5. Cow brings prosperity and strength
6. If cows keep healthy and happy, men and women shall also keep disease free and prosperous

7. May the cow eat green grass and pure water. May they not be killed and bring prosperity to us.

n Above tweets (11/n to 19/n) clearly explain Vedas didn’t promote beef eating but Cow Protection & Care. Yet should you have a myth that certain Richa or Mantras promote so, share it with me. I’ll interpret & translate it perfectly for you. Now let’s go thru more documentation to understand India’s stand about meat eating:

India is a strange country. People do not kill any living creatures, do not keep pigs and fowl, and do not sell live cattle.
—Faxian, 4th/5th century CE [Chinese pilgrim to India] n Hindus, like early Christians and Manichaeans, forbade the killing and eating of meat.

—Abū Rayḥān Al-Biruni, 1017–1030 CE [Persian visitor to India] n They would not kill an animal on any account, not even a fly, or a flea, or a louse, or anything, in fact, that has life; for they say these have all souls, and it would be sin to do so.

—Marco Polo, III.20, 13th century [Venetian traveler to India] n These quotes from visitors to India show that meat-eating of any kind was not common, what to speak of beef-eating, dating back thousands of years.

Bhagavad Gita, it is mentioned: n Farming, cow protection and business are the natural work for the vaisyas, and for the sudras there is labor and service to others. Bg 18.44 n The guiding principles of Vedic culture is to keep life simple, engage in improving oneself and respect others according to their qualities.

Now, let me give you socio cultural aspect that further suffice that yes India is and should be non-Beef eating land👇🏼 n First thing to be clear is that there is nothing sacrilegious about it, If you know Hinduness deep enough and well enough, you can see that there is no”Thou Shall not” in Sanatana Practice. n People in Ancient India always relied on improving Human Intelligence & Consciousness where they would naturally make good choices rather than simple belief systems, that’s the beauty of Hindu way of life and it should remain so. n Let’s look at more reasons👇🏼


In Indian culture, we see Cow from mammals, Snake from reptiles and Crow from birds as very close to human beings in evolution in terms of emotional display, intelligence etc., n Snake:
Even now it is common that you don’t kill a snake in India, if you do, you have to perform rites & rituals as you would do for a Human.

Almost every form of rituals done to ancestors ends with an offering to a Crow. n Cow:
India which is largely an agrarian culture in the past relied heavily in the Milk, Butter and other dairy products. All the homes gave individual names to the cows they reared and they are treated like a family member. n A cow has a strong emotional display and shall actually shed tears if someone in the home dies or terminally ill. these incidences can be easily seen in rural areas.That’s why Indians have a huge love for Cows in the same way many people love Dogs for it’s emotional display. n So Usage & Love for Cows is one of the prime reasons why Cows were not killed in India. Cow is a very versatile animal when alive, almost everything from it can be used beautifully including it’s dung & urine. n REASON NO: 2 – INDIAN FOOD CULTURE
The basic thumbrule of Indian food culture is that a Human being should consume food which is as far away from him as possible in evolutionary scale. i.e. it should start with Plant life, then sea food, then poultry,..contd n … then animals which are routed in the body, and so on. (More in terms of Darwin’s theory of evolution)

This is the reason why even now over 40% of Indian are Vegetarian. n Capability of a human being to digest the food will be much better if the food consumed is a simple life as opposed to a life which is higher up in evolutionary scale.There is another spiritual dimension to it which can be left out from this answer as it is not that relavant n REASON NO: 3 – BASIC HUMANITY

When we were born,we drink milk from our Biological mother.When we grow up,we mainly drink milk from the Cow.If we just drop all our belief systems, conditions etc & just look honestly, we can even say with gratitude that Cow is 2ndmother to us n
Is it really necessary to slaughter an animal which is versatile, useful, cries for you, nourishes you in every way to satisfy your hunger?, that’s the basic question for which Indians say ‘No, it’s not necessary’ and they are labelled as fundamentalists. Fantastic !!! n Indologists like Macdonald, Weber, Winternitz have pronounced the Vedas to be barbaric and concluded that ‘Hanyante Gaavaha’ meant that cows were slaughtered in marriage rituals. n Our Scholars on the basis of this info frm these Indologists pronounced us to be beefeaters. Macdonald has misconstrued the word HanyanteGaavahaa by saying that in a marriage ritual a cow is slaughtered on the day of the magha lunar asterism& everyone feasts on the cow meat n The Rigveda states the following in relation to the Sun God’s marriage.

Suryaayaa Vahatuha Praagaat Savitaa Yamavaasrujat
Aghaasu Hanyante Gaavorjunyoha Puryuhyate – Rigveda 10.85.13 n Meaning: Savita gifted the moon who was his daughter’s to be father-in-law with a cow on the auspicious day of Maghaasterism and performed the ritual of giving away of the bride (kanyadan) of Surya on the Falgun lunar asterism. n Clarification: The word Aghaasu is Maghaasu in the Atharvaveda . There is no difference of opinion about these words among our ancient translators. In a marriage Agha( Magha) and Arjuni (Falguni) asterisms are important.

All deities are present in Cow (Gomata) n Godaan is offering of a cow and Govikartaa means a cowherd !

This is the meaning that these westerners give. The word ‘go’ means ‘hair’.

Godaan: This word comes from the Rigveda and Smrutigranth. ‘Go’ means hair and ‘daan’ means to cut thus Godaan is cutting of hair. n In the Shrout and gruha traditions importance is given to tonsuring. Also the ritual of Chudaakarma means the cutting of hair. Godaan is actually the ritual of ‘Keshant’ as is clearly given by Smurtikar. Chudaakaran, godaan and jataakaran are all synonymous words. n Govikarta : Govikarta means a barber and not a cowherd.

Gopati means a bull!

Max Mueller has derived that ‘gopati’ means a bull though ‘go’ means rays and ‘pati’ means the master of the rays that is the Sun.

Ref for 41-46
Gurudev Dr. Kateswamiji (Sanatan Chintan , Year1 n @HartoshSinghBal ji there are lots of myths which linger to be busted but I call it an end here, though below I give you history of this distortion should you really want to bat for truth👇🏼 n In Independent India, conspiracy was hatched to justify the eating of beef and cow-slaughter in the name of Vedas. Articles &papers were written published, quoting Vedic richas. n It was all deliberate as they translated the word ghrit (clarified butter) into “fat implying tallow of cattle” and Mahisha (buffalo) into cow. They also invoked the richas regarding funeral fire and forest fire into their kitchens. n The story is an old one. It was the allegation of fat i.e. tallow of cows and pigs were being used in cartridges which were one of the reasons for the First War of Independence in 1857. n Now it alerted the British. They tried to lower down the image of the cow and its reverence and prove that they were as much foreigner as the Hindus are. So it was their plan to invent the evidence of beef eating in Vedic culture. n It has always been the game plan of the west to field mercenaries as scholars and elites and through them propagate their own view point. Even today we witness such award winners working as a tool to vested interests and multinationals (need not say the names 😉) n They ascribed this job to European and some Indian nationals to invent evidence in the Vedas favouring cow slaughter and beef-eating. n Rajendra Lal Mitra published “Beef in Ancient India” in the Asiatic Society of Bengal in 1872. Go-Raksha was in vogue. So to face it, a swami was recruited. He was Swami Prakashanand He appeared on the scene and published the same essay in a booklet form. n A Sanskrit to Sanskrit dictionary in six volumes was used for this purpose. Pt Taranath,a prof. of Vyakarana at Sanskrit college Calcutta was made to translate the word Goghn as killer of cow. n This was a deliberate attempt at distortion so as to prove that beef was eaten in Vedic age. H. H. Swami Prakashanand Saraswati in “The true History and Religion of India“ explains that goghn actually stands for the guest who receives cow as gift. n He quotes Panini n3.4.73. as authority to justify that it only means the receiver of the gift of cow and nothing else but Tarachand overrules even the authority of Panini and the British agree. Why? n The reality is that in 1866, the Bengal government had granted a commitment in advance to purchase 200 copies of his books @ 50/ per book to a total of 10,000/rupees (.vide letters no 507 dated 26 01-1866.) n Even the governor vide letter no 1480 dated 12. 12 1870 granted extension of time to them for completing Vachaspatyam, the proposed Sanskrit dictionary… The income was assured and they had to justify what the payers wanted. The game goes on but with a changed garb. n I call it an end here @HartoshSinghBal with 59 tweets in regards to your false claim that ancient Indians ate beef👆🏼You May try to justify Beef was eaten by ancient India. And this is thread that demolishes claim that Harappans weren’t Vedic.Aabhas Maldahiyar @Aabhas24

@virsanghvi ji Sadar Pranam. Read this article by you in @htTweets with enthusiasm as it was subject of my interest but I’m sorry it’s full of flaws abt IVC. My rebuttal(pl wait till it’s n/n)👇🏼 Pl respond in ur full capacity cc @Shubhrastha @Sanjay_Dixit Why a 4,500-year-old skull is key to the politics of India’s Hindu-Muslim divideArchaeological and historical theories surrounding an ancient civilisation in the Indus valley have been hijacked by political agendas.scmp.com327 · Bengaluru South, IndiaTwitter Ads info and privacy325 people are talking about thisN/n In the thread👆🏼(60tweets) I bust the myth that ancient Indians ate beef & Harappans were not Vedic (quoted thread in 60/n). @HartoshSinghBal shud apologise for propagating fake information in case he fails to justify. Cc @MahimaShastri@mini_707070@KarunaGopal1@GitaSKapoor

Ji, Sadar Pranam! I still await your response to my thread (check above & quoted),where I demolished your claim that “Vedas prescribe cow eating”. Kindly delete your ill informed tweet asap if you don’t have capacity to respond.Aabhas Maldahiyar @Aabhas24

Sadar Pranam to the God within you @HartoshSinghBal ji. You are absolutely wrong. It’s a false claim that ancient Indians ate beef & Harappans weren’t Vedic. Read thread 👇🏼& you may respond in your full capacity. Cc @Sanjay_Dixit @sankrant @ShefVaidya @RituRathaur @TajinderBagga …Hartosh Singh Bal@HartoshSinghBalthe harappans ate beef, the vedic people ate beef. any one laying claims to an indian past can do not better than to dig into a juicy tenderloin …1,248Twitter Ads info and privacy1,001 people are talking about this

Why Akbar was not desirable

A thread by Aabhas Maldahiyar 🇮🇳

#SadarPranam @Javedakhtarjadu ji. I don’t think my MP @Tejasvi_Surya needs to worry about Huns or Vikings but surely by likes of Akbar. I explain how, in this thread.

U may respond should you have enough substance.Javed Akhtar@JavedakhtarjaduReplying to @vivekagnihotri

Don’t you know that Akbar and many of us are from the same school and the same class . Our relations got spoiled only when his great grand son became like today’s Right wingers Any way , I have promised to your frighten MP that we will save him from Attila the Hun n the Vikings60Twitter Ads info and privacy342 people are talking about thisn So Why Akbar isn’t desired?

Reason 1:Extortionist Economic Policies. Elaboration below👇🏼

“Akbar’s taxes were highest”.

Ref 1:Muslim Civilization in India
by S. M. Ikram
edited by
Ainslie T. Embree, Chapter XVL

I’m quoting more details in trailing tweet.

n Irfan Habib mentions about forced productions by various including Asaf Khan for their own financial benefits.

He even talks about extortion & gives example of Shaista Khan & Prince Azimushshan.
Check snippet Ref: Pg 183, The Cambridge Economic History of India”

  n Habib further gives account of money hoarding at large scale by Mughal Emperors including Akbar in the same book.

He quotes De Laet who mentions Akbar’s treasure to be ~522.4 million florins & Sarista Khan to have hoarded ₹380 million.

Ref: pg 183

n So @Javedakhtarjadu Akbar was booming our economy by hoarding & extortion? 🤔

This is further substantiated by fact that India’s per capita GDP went in negative under Akbar the Great. Which means he kept becoming richer though making Indians poor.

Check the snippets (1,2)

n And GDP Of Mughal Empire increased thoroughly.

Source for 5/n & 6/n
“A Contours of the World Economy I-2030AD, Oxford University Press by A Maddison.”

n Reason 2, for which @Tejasvi_Surya & us must worry likes of Akbar was his tyranny & bigotry. I explain below👇🏼

In early years of his reign,Akbar suppressed Muslim sects that were condemned by the orthodoxy as heretical.

I’m sure that you are aware of the incidence of 1567.

n On the advice of Shaikh Abdu’n Nabi, he ordered the exhumation of Mir Murtaza Sharifi Shirazi: a Shia buried in Delhi for the grave’s proximity to that of Amir Khusrau.

His argument was as below👇🏼

n “A “heretic” could not be buried so close to the grave of a Sunni saint, reflecting a restrictive attitude towards the Shia, which continued to persist until the early 1570s.

Such was Akbar’s hostility towards Shi’as. n Akbar even suppressed Mahdavism in 1573 during his campaign in Gujarat. Mahdavi leader Bandagi Miyan Sheik Mustafa was arrested and brought in chains to the court for debate and released after eighteen months.

Source for 6/n-9/n:’Akbar and His India’ by Irfan Habib

n In 1578, the Mughal Emperor Akbar famously referred to himself as:
“Emperor of Islam, Emir of the Faithful, Shadow of God on earth, Abul Fath Jalal-ud-din Muhammad Akbar Badshah Ghazi , is a most just, most wise, and a most God-fearing ruler.”

n Source for 10/n : Akbar, Emperor of India by Richard Von Garbe

@Javedakhtarjadu I’m sure you know what Ghazi means.

Now from 12/n onwards I’ll cite part-2 of Reason-2, ie Akbar’s tyranny & bigotry.

Till then you may arrange answers upto 10/n. n @Javedakhtarjadu now let’s talk abt persecution of Hindus by Akbar.

1)Massacre of Hindus of Garha in 1560 AD(Ref: The SAGE Encyclopedia of War: Social Science Perspectives
edited by Paul Joseph)

Abul Fazl states: 48,000 Hindus were persecuted at the orders of Akbar.


n One may argue that soldiers always get killed in war, hence 8000 Rajput Warriors. 

But @Javedakhtarjadu why Akbar killed 40,000 peasants?

Just because they were Kafirs. Akbar was a Jihadi. Read more. 👇🏼 n 2)Massacre of Gondwana

In 1564, Akbar conquered the Gondwana kingdom. The territory was ruled over by Raja Vir Narayan, a minor, and his mother, Durgavati, a Rajput warrior queen of the Gonds. nDurgavati committed suicide after her defeat at the Battle of Damoh,while Raja Vir was slain at the Fall of Chauragarh,the mountain fortress of the Gonds.The Mughals seized immense wealth & 1000 elephants.Kamala Devi,a younger sister of Durgavati,was sent to the Mughal harem.

@Javedakhtarjadu you know your Akbar-The Great has tough time defeating Veerangana Devi Durgavati.

If Akbar was man of morality why did he send Kamlavati to Harem?

Source: Medieval India: From Sultanat to the Mughals Part – II
By Satish Chandra(PS: ur own left Historian) n @Javedakhtarjadu ji, now let’s talk about
3)Persecutions at Nagarkot

Nizamuddin Ahmad recorded the violence during the conquest of Nagarkot (modern Himachal Pradesh), as follows (snippet & following tweets)👇🏼

n The fortress of Bhun,which is an idol temple of Mahámáí,was taken by Muslim assailants. A party of Rajputs, who had resolved to die, fought till they were all cut down.

A nos of Brahmins,who for many years had served the temple,never gave 1 thought to flight, & were killed. n Nearly 200 black cows belonging to the Hindus, during the struggle, had crowded together for shelter in the temple.

Alas, @Javedakhtarjadu Some savage Turks, while the arrows and bullets were falling like rain, killed these cows one by one. 😓 n They then took off their boots and filled them with the blood, and cast it upon the roof and walls of the temple.

Shame on the Akbar’s Army. @Javedakhtarjadu don’t u feel like spitting on Akbar? Reference for 17/n to 20/n:

Elliot, Henry Miers; Dowson, John (1873). The History of India, as Told by Its Own Historians: The Muhammadan Period. Vol. V. London: Trübner and Co. n @Javedakhtarjadu how can we forget the third siege of Chittor? Many temples were destroyed. The shrine of Moinuddin Chishti in Ajmer was presented brass candlesticks by Akbar which were taken after the destruction of Kalika temple during this siege.

Bigot! Wasn’t he? n September 1567, Akbar left for Chittor, and on 20 October 1567, camped in the vast plains outside the fort. In the meantime, Rana Udai Singh, on the advice of his council of advisors, decided to go away from Chittor to the hills of Gogunda with his family. n Jaimal and Patta were left behind to defend the fort along with 8,000 Rajput warriors and 1,000 musketeers under their command. Akbar laid siege to the fortress, which lasted for 4 months. n On 22 February 1568, Jauhar was committed in the houses of Patta, Aissar Das & Sahib Khan. Next day the gates of the fort were opened and Rajput soldiers rushed out to fight the enemies. In the ensuing battle, 8,000 Rajputs were killed alongside 30000 peasants.

n According to James Tod, 



had the Janeu of slain collected & weighed for estimate of killed. It weighed around 200kg.

@Javedakhtarjadu can u imagine mercilessness of Akbar?

The slaughter wasn’t just vengeance.

Shame on Akbar.

n Reference for 22/n to 26/n: Emperors of the Peacock Throne: The Saga of the Great Mughals
By Abraham Eraly n @Javedakhtarjadu ji, Jesuit Father Monserrate, Aquaviva and Enrique arrived at Akbar’s court in early 1580 and Monserrate recording his journey in a travelogue comments that religious zeal of Mussalmans has destroyed many Hindu temples.

Source: Snippet.

n and to add 28/n.. in place of temples countless tombs and shrines of mussalmans have been erected in which these men are worshipped as if they were saints.

👆🏼 In the reign of great Akbar. n Akbar had rewarded Abd al-Qadir Badauni with gold coins who soak his Islamic beard in Hindu infidel blood.

The gesture of Badauni had delighted “Akbar the great Secularist”
Source: The Legacy of Jihad:Islamic Holy War & the Fate of Non-Muslims edited by Andrew G. Bostom